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Open AccessArticle

Sodium, Potassium and Iodine Intake, in A National Adult Population Sample of the Republic of Moldova

by Lanfranco D’Elia 1,2, Galina Obreja 3, Angela Ciobanu 4,5, Joao Breda 6, Jo Jewell 5,7 and Francesco P. Cappuccio 1,8,*,† on behalf of the Salt Consumption Survey in the Republic of Moldova Study Group
1
World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Nutrition, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
2
Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, “Federico II” University of Naples, 80131 Naples, Italy
3
Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, State University of Medicine and Pharmacy Nicolae Testemitanu, 2004 Chişinău, Moldova
4
World Health Organization Country Office, 2012 Chişinău, Moldova
5
World Health Organization European Office for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
6
World Health Organization European Office for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, 229994 Moscow, Russia
7
United Nations Children’s Fund, UNICEF, New York, NY 10017, USA
8
Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membership of the Salt Consumption Survey in the Republic of Moldova Study Group is provided in the Acknowledgments.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2896; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122896
Received: 7 November 2019 / Revised: 21 November 2019 / Accepted: 25 November 2019 / Published: 28 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Iodine Intake on Human Health)
In the Republic of Moldova, more than half of all deaths due to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). Excess salt (sodium) and inadequate potassium intakes are associated with high CVD. Moreover, salt iodisation is the preferred policy to prevent iodine deficiency and associated disorders. However, there is no survey that has directly measured sodium, potassium and iodine consumption in adults in the Republic of Moldova. A national random sample of adults attended a screening including demographic, anthropometric and physical measurements. Sodium, potassium and iodine intakes were assessed by 24 h urinary sodium (UNa), potassium (UK) and iodine (UI) excretions. Knowledge, attidues and behaviours were collected by questionnaire. Eight-hundred and fifty-eight participants (326 men and 532 women, 18–69 years) were included in the analysis (response rate 66%). Mean age was 48.5 years (SD 13.8). Mean UNa was 172.7 (79.3) mmoL/day, equivalent to 10.8 g of salt/day and potassium excretion 72.7 (31.5) mmoL/day, equivalent to 3.26 g/day. Only 11.3% met the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended salt targets of 5 g/day and 39% met potassium targets (>90 mmoL/day). Whilst 81.7% declared limiting their consumption of processed food and over 70% not adding salt at the table, only 8.8% looked at sodium content of food, 31% still added salt when cooking and less than 1% took other measures to control salt consumption. Measures of awareness were significantly more common in urban compared to rural areas. Mean urinary iodine was 225 (SD: 152; median 196) mcg/24 h, with no difference between sexes. According to WHO criteria, 41.0% had adequate iodine intake. Iodine content of salt table was 21.0 (SD: 18.6) mg/kg, lower in rural than urban areas (16.7, SD = 18.6 vs. 28.1, SD = 16.5 mg/kg, p < 0.001). In most cases participants were not using iodised salt as their main source of salt, more so in rural areas. In the Republic of Moldova, salt consumption is unequivocally high, potassium consumption is lower than recommended, both in men and in women, whilst iodine intake is still inadequate in one in three people, although severe iodine deficiency is rare. Salt consumed is often not iodised.
Keywords: Republic of Moldova; salt; sodium; potassium; iodine; population Republic of Moldova; salt; sodium; potassium; iodine; population
MDPI and ACS Style

D’Elia, L.; Obreja, G.; Ciobanu, A.; Breda, J.; Jewell, J.; Cappuccio, F.P., on behalf of the Salt Consumption Survey in the Republic of Moldova Study Group; Sodium, Potassium and Iodine Intake, in A National Adult Population Sample of the Republic of Moldova. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2896.

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