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Current Data on Dietary Sodium, Arterial Structure and Function in Humans: A Systematic Review

1
Department of Medicine, Clinic & Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Cardiovascular Prevention & Research Unit, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 115 27 Athens, Greece
2
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University of Athens, 176 76 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010005
Received: 23 October 2019 / Revised: 3 December 2019 / Accepted: 9 December 2019 / Published: 18 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Therapy for High Blood Pressure)
Background: Subclinical arterial damage (SAD) (arteriosclerosis, arterial remodeling and atheromatosis) pre-exists decades before cardiovascular disease (CVD) onset. Worldwide, sodium (Na) intake is almost double international recommendations and has been linked with CVD and death, although in a J-shape manner. Studies regarding dietary Na and major types of SAD may provide pathophysiological insight into the association between Na and CVD. Objectives: Systematic review of data derived from observational and interventional studies in humans, investigating the association between dietary Na with (i) atheromatosis (arterial plaques); (ii) arteriosclerosis (various biomarkers of arterial stiffness); (iii) arterial remodeling (intima–media thickening and arterial lumen diameters). Data sources: Applying the PRISMA criteria, the PubMed and Scopus databases were used. Results: 36 studies were included: 27 examining arteriosclerosis, four arteriosclerosis and arterial remodeling, three arterial remodeling, and two arterial remodeling and atheromatosis. Conclusions: (i) Although several studies exist, the evidence does not clearly support a clinically meaningful and direct (independent from blood pressure) effect of Na on arterial wall stiffening; (ii) data regarding the association of dietary Na with arterial remodeling are limited, mostly suggesting a positive trend between dietary Na and arterial hypertrophy but still inconclusive; (iii) as regards to atheromatosis, data are scarce and the available studies present high heterogeneity. Further state-of-the-art interventional studies must address the remaining controversies. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary sodium; arterial structure; arterial function; arteriosclerosis; arterial stiffness; arterial remodeling; arterial hypertrophy; atheromatosis; arterial plaques dietary sodium; arterial structure; arterial function; arteriosclerosis; arterial stiffness; arterial remodeling; arterial hypertrophy; atheromatosis; arterial plaques
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Tsirimiagkou, C.; Basdeki, E.D.; Argyris, A.; Manios, Y.; Yannakoulia, M.; Protogerou, A.D.; Karatzi, K. Current Data on Dietary Sodium, Arterial Structure and Function in Humans: A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2020, 12, 5.

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