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Dietary Inflammatory Index and Non-Communicable Disease Risk: A Narrative Review

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HRB Centre for Diet and Health Research, School of Public Health, Physiotherapy, and Sports Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
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HRB Centre for Diet and Health Research, School of Public Health, University College Cork, Western Gateway Building, Western Rd, Cork, Co. Cork, Ireland
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Research Team on the Early Life Origins of Health (EAROH), Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Statistics (CRESS), INSERM, Université de Paris, F-94807 Villejuif, France
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MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
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The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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Department of Pediatrics, Division of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2060, 3000 CB Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2060, 3000 CB Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 91-348 Lodz, Poland
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MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK
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Cancer Prevention and Control Program and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
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Connecting Health Innovations LLC, Columbia, SC 29201, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1873; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081873
Received: 18 June 2019 / Revised: 30 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 August 2019 / Published: 12 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Inflammatory Indices in Human Health and Disease)
There are over 1,000,000 publications on diet and health and over 480,000 references on inflammation in the National Library of Medicine database. In addition, there have now been over 30,000 peer-reviewed articles published on the relationship between diet, inflammation, and health outcomes. Based on this voluminous literature, it is now recognized that low-grade, chronic systemic inflammation is associated with most non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, cancers, respiratory and musculoskeletal disorders, as well as impaired neurodevelopment and adverse mental health outcomes. Dietary components modulate inflammatory status. In recent years, the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), a literature-derived dietary index, was developed to characterize the inflammatory potential of habitual diet. Subsequently, a large and rapidly growing body of research investigating associations between dietary inflammatory potential, determined by the DII, and risk of a wide range of NCDs has emerged. In this narrative review, we examine the current state of the science regarding relationships between the DII and cancer, cardiometabolic, respiratory and musculoskeletal diseases, neurodevelopment, and adverse mental health outcomes. We synthesize the findings from recent studies, discuss potential underlying mechanisms, and look to the future regarding novel applications of the adult and children’s DII (C-DII) scores and new avenues of investigation in this field of nutritional research. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary inflammatory index; inflammation; cardiometabolic health; obesity; metabolic syndrome; cancer; respiratory health; bone health; mental health; neurodevelopment dietary inflammatory index; inflammation; cardiometabolic health; obesity; metabolic syndrome; cancer; respiratory health; bone health; mental health; neurodevelopment
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Phillips, C.M.; Chen, L.-W.; Heude, B.; Bernard, J.Y.; Harvey, N.C.; Duijts, L.; Mensink-Bout, S.M.; Polanska, K.; Mancano, G.; Suderman, M.; Shivappa, N.; Hébert, J.R. Dietary Inflammatory Index and Non-Communicable Disease Risk: A Narrative Review. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1873.

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