Special Issue "Dietary Inflammatory Potential and Dietary Quality, Maternal Health and Offspring Outcomes"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (18 July 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Catherine Phillips
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
Interests: Developmental Origins of Health and Disease; Diet; Lifestyle; Biomarkers; Inflammation; Obesity; Metabolic Health
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Marion Lecorguillé
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
Interests: Development Origins of Health and Disease; Preconception; Maternal Nutrition; Pregnancy Outcomes; Fetal Development; Obesity; Epigenetics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Early life exposure to a range of environmental factors, including nutrition, plays a key role in defining offspring health, both in childhood and throughout their lifespan. According to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis, transient environmental exposures during critical periods of growth and development (such as the periconceptional, fetal and early infant phases of life) can alter normal physiology and have a persistent impact on metabolism and gene expression thereby influencing disease risk in later life. Epigenetics has been proposed as a mediating mechanism underlying fetal programming.

Maternal diet is a modifiable behaviour which may influence pregnancy, perinatal and early life health outcomes. Thus optimising diet during such critical windows of development has the potential to positively impact on childhood health and future health trajectory. Diet is an important immunoregulator. A growing body of evidence has highlighted the role of dietary inflammation, mainly characterised by the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), and dietary quality, charactersised by a range of dietary indices, in a range of health outcomes in adults. The purpose of this Special Issue, Dietary Inflammatory Potential and Dietary Quality, Maternal Health and Offspring Outcomes,” is to focus on maternal dietary inflammation and dietary quality during pregnancy and its’ role in both maternal and offspring health; this may include high-risk pregnancy, pregnancy complications, determinants of maternal dietary inflammation, epigenetics, fetal and placental development, adverse birth outcomes, breastmilk composition, early life and childhood health including, but not limited to, growth and development. Submissions to this Special Issue may include original research including intervention studies, narrative or systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

Dr. Catherine Phillips
Guest Editor
Dr. Marion Lecorguillé
Co-Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Pregnancy
  • Maternal Nutrition
  • Dietary Inflammation
  • Dietary Quality
  • Fetal development
  • Fetal programming
  • Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
  • Epigenetics
  • Pregnancy Complications
  • Perinatal Health Outcomes
  • Early life
  • First 1000 days
  • Childhood health
  • Inflammation
  • Metabolism
  • Gut microbiota
  • Obesity

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Effect of an Antenatal Lifestyle Intervention on Dietary Inflammatory Index and Its Associations with Maternal and Fetal Outcomes: A Secondary Analysis of the PEARS Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2798; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082798 - 15 Aug 2021
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Abstract
We investigated the effect of an antenatal lifestyle intervention of a low-glycaemic index (GI) diet and physical activity on energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DIITM) and explored its relationship with maternal and child health in women with overweight and obesity. This was [...] Read more.
We investigated the effect of an antenatal lifestyle intervention of a low-glycaemic index (GI) diet and physical activity on energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DIITM) and explored its relationship with maternal and child health in women with overweight and obesity. This was a secondary analysis of 434 mother−child pairs from the Pregnancy Exercise and Nutrition Study (PEARS) trial in Dublin, Ireland. E-DIITM scores were calculated for early (10–16 weeks) and late (28 weeks) pregnancy. Outcomes included lipids, inflammation markers, insulin resistance, mode of delivery, infant size, pre-eclampsia, and gestational diabetes. T-tests were used to assess changes in E-DIITM. Chi-square, correlations, and multiple regression were employed to investigate relationships with outcomes. The mean (SD) age of participants was 32.45 (4.29) years with median (IQR) BMI 28.25 (26.70, 31.34) kg/m2. There was no change in E-DIITM in the controls (−0.14 (1.19) vs. −0.07 (1.09), p = 0.465) but E-DIITM reduced by 10% after the intervention (0.01 (1.07) vs −0.75 (1.05), p < 0.001). No associations were found between early pregnancy E-DIITM and maternal and child outcomes, except for increased odds of adverse cardiometabolic phenotype in women who delivered male (OR = 2.29, p = 0.010) but not female infants (OR = 0.99, p = 0.960). A low-GI antenatal intervention can reduce the inflammatory potential of diets. Sex differences should be explored further in future research. Full article
Article
Pre-Pregnancy Diet Quality Is Associated with Lowering the Risk of Offspring Obesity and Underweight: Finding from a Prospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041044 - 24 Mar 2021
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Abstract
Maternal diet plays a critical role in epigenetic changes and the establishment of the gut microbiome in the fetus, which has been associated with weight outcomes in offspring. This study examined the association between maternal diet quality before pregnancy and childhood body mass [...] Read more.
Maternal diet plays a critical role in epigenetic changes and the establishment of the gut microbiome in the fetus, which has been associated with weight outcomes in offspring. This study examined the association between maternal diet quality before pregnancy and childhood body mass index (BMI) in offspring. There were 1936 mothers with 3391 children included from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) and the Mothers and their Children’s Health (MatCH) study. Maternal dietary intakes were assessed using a semi-quantitative and validated 101-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The healthy eating index (HEI-2015) score was used to explore preconception diet quality. Childhood BMI was categorized as underweight, normal, overweight, and obese based on sex and age-specific BMI classifications for children. Multinomial logistic regression with cluster-robust standard errors was used for analyses. Greater adherence to maternal diet quality before pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of offspring being underweight after adjustment for potential confounders, highest vs. lowest quartile (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.96). Higher adherence to preconception diet quality was also inversely linked with the risk of childhood obesity (RRR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.98). This association was, however, no longer significant after adjusting for pre-pregnancy BMI. Sodium intake was significantly associated with decreased risk of childhood overweight and obesity (RRR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.23) and (RRR = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.26), respectively. No significant association was detected between preconception diet quality and offspring being overweight. This study suggests that better adherence to maternal diet quality before pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of childhood underweight and obesity. Full article
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Article
Effect of Omega-3 Supplementation in Pregnant Women with Obesity on Newborn Body Composition, Growth and Length of Gestation: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020578 - 09 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
Maternal obesity, a state of chronic low-grade metabolic inflammation, is a growing health burden associated with offspring adiposity, abnormal fetal growth and prematurity, which are all linked to adverse offspring cardiometabolic health. Higher intake of anti-inflammatory omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in [...] Read more.
Maternal obesity, a state of chronic low-grade metabolic inflammation, is a growing health burden associated with offspring adiposity, abnormal fetal growth and prematurity, which are all linked to adverse offspring cardiometabolic health. Higher intake of anti-inflammatory omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in pregnancy has been associated with lower adiposity, higher birthweight and longer gestation. However, the effects of n-3 supplementation specifically in pregnant women with overweight and obesity (OWOB) have not been explored. We conducted a pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial of 72 pregnant women with first trimester body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 to explore preliminary efficacy of n-3 supplementation. Participants were randomized to daily DHA plus EPA (2 g/d) or placebo (wheat germ oil) from 10–16 weeks gestation to delivery. Neonatal body composition, fetal growth and length of gestation were assessed. For the 48 dyads with outcome data, median (IQR) maternal BMI was 30.2 (28.2, 35.4) kg/m2. In sex-adjusted analyses, n-3 supplementation was associated with higher neonatal fat-free mass (β: 218 g; 95% CI 49, 387) but not with % body fat or fat mass. Birthweight for gestational age z-score (−0.17 ± 0.67 vs. −0.61 ± 0.61 SD unit, p = 0.02) was higher, and gestation longer (40 (38.5, 40.1) vs. 39 (38, 39.4) weeks, p = 0.02), in the treatment vs. placebo group. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA in women with OWOB led to higher lean mass accrual at birth as well as improved fetal growth and longer gestation. Larger well-powered trials of n-3 PUFA supplementation specifically in pregnant women with OWOB should be conducted to confirm these findings and explore the long-term impact on offspring obesity and cardiometabolic health. Full article
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Review

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Review
Maternal Dietary Quality and Dietary Inflammation Associations with Offspring Growth, Placental Development, and DNA Methylation
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3130; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093130 - 08 Sep 2021
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Abstract
The ‘Developmental Origins of Health and Diseases’ hypothesis posits that prenatal maternal diet influences offspring growth and later life health outcomes. Dietary assessment has focused on selected nutrients. However, this approach does not consider the complex interactions between foods and nutrients. To provide [...] Read more.
The ‘Developmental Origins of Health and Diseases’ hypothesis posits that prenatal maternal diet influences offspring growth and later life health outcomes. Dietary assessment has focused on selected nutrients. However, this approach does not consider the complex interactions between foods and nutrients. To provide a more comprehensive approach to public health, dietary indices have been developed to assess dietary quality, dietary inflammation and risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Thus far, their use in the context of placental development is limited and associations with offspring outcomes have been inconsistent. Although epidemiological studies have focused on the role of maternal diet on foetal programming, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Some evidence suggests these associations may be driven by placental and epigenetic changes. In this narrative review, we examine the current literature regarding relationships between key validated diet quality scores (Dietary Inflammatory Index [DII], Mediterranean diet [MD], Healthy Eating Index [HEI], Alternative Healthy Eating Index [AHEI], Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH], Glycaemic Index [GI] and Glycaemic Load [GL]) in pregnancy and birth and long-term offspring outcomes. We summarise findings, discuss potential underlying placental and epigenetic mechanisms, in particular DNA methylation, and highlight the need for further research and public health strategies that incorporate diet quality and epigenetics. Full article
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