Background: Current evidence supports the central role of a subclinical, low-grade inflammation in a number of chronic illnesses and mental disorders; however, studies on sleep quality are scarce. The aim of this study was to test the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and sleep quality in a cohort of Italian adults. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Aging, and Lifestyle (MEAL) study was conducted on 1936 individuals recruited in the urban area of Catania during 2014–2015 through random sampling. A food frequency questionnaire and other validated instruments were used to calculate the dietary inflammatory index (DII®
) and assess sleep quality (Pittsburg sleep quality index). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between exposure and outcome. Results: Individuals in the highest quartile of the DII were less likely to have adequate sleep quality (odds ratio (OR
) = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.78). Among individual domains of sleep quality, an association with the highest exposure category was found only for sleep latency (OR
= 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.93). Conclusions: The inflammatory potential of the diet appears to be associated with sleep quality in adults. Interventions to improve diet quality might consider including a dietary component that aims to lower chronic systemic inflammation to prevent cognitive decline and improve sleep quality.
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