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Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101372

Association of Dietary Fatty Acids with Blood Lipids is Modified by Physical Activity in Adolescents: Results from the GINIplus and LISA Birth Cohort Studies

1
Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München–German Research Centre for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
2
Dr. von Hauner Children’s Hospital, University Hospital, LMU of Munich, 80337 Munich, Germany
3
Department of Pediatrics, Research Institute, Marien-Hospital Wesel, 46483 Wesel, Germany
4
Department of Pediatrics, Technical University of Munich, 80804 Munich, Germany
5
IUF—Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
6
Institute and Outpatient Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Inner City Clinic, University Hospital of Munich (LMU), 80336 Munich, Germany
7
Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
8
Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich (CPC-M), German Center for Lung Research, 81337 Munich, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 23 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism and Human Health)
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Abstract

The role of consuming different types of fatty acids (FA) at the expense of carbohydrates (CHO), on the blood lipid profile of adolescents is largely unknown, as is the modulating effect of different levels of physical activity (PA). Children from the GINIplus and LISA birth cohorts, with complete data on dietary FA (assessed by food-frequency questionnaires), objectively-measured PA (assessed by accelerometers) and blood lipids (lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides) at age 15 years, were included (N = 837). Sex-stratified associations between dietary FA and blood lipids were assessed by linear regression in substitution models which represented isocaloric replacements of CHO with saturated FA (SFA), monounsaturated FA (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) or n-6 PUFA. To assess the interactions with PA, analyses were then performed stratified by tertiles of different PA levels (sedentary, lifestyle, moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA)). Both sexes presented a significant inverse association between MUFA and triglycerides, and females a direct association between n-3 PUFA and high-density lipoprotein. Stratifying by PA tertiles, associations were mainly restricted to participants with the lowest levels of lifestyle PA, or the highest time spent sedentary. The effects of dietary FA on the lipid profile vary in an activity-specific manner, emphasizing possible synergistic roles of diet and PA. View Full-Text
Keywords: fatty acids; carbohydrates; blood lipids; physical activity; sedentary; lifestyle; MVPA; adolescents; substitution fatty acids; carbohydrates; blood lipids; physical activity; sedentary; lifestyle; MVPA; adolescents; substitution
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Harris, C.P.; von Berg, A.; Berdel, D.; Bauer, C.-P.; Schikowski, T.; Koletzko, S.; Heinrich, J.; Schulz, H.; Standl, M. Association of Dietary Fatty Acids with Blood Lipids is Modified by Physical Activity in Adolescents: Results from the GINIplus and LISA Birth Cohort Studies. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1372.

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