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Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1460; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101460

Effect of Low Dose Docosahexaenoic Acid-Rich Fish Oil on Plasma Lipids and Lipoproteins in Pre-Menopausal Women: A Dose–Response Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

1
School of Medicine, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
2
Illawarra Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
3
University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
4
Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3220, Australia
5
Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food, Monash University, Notting Hill, VIC 3168, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 21 September 2018 / Published: 8 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism and Human Health)
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Abstract

Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation has been shown to improve plasma lipid profiles in men and post-menopausal women, however, data for pre-menopausal women are lacking. The benefits of intakes less than 1 g/day have not been well studied, and dose–response data is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of low doses of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich tuna oil on plasma triglyceride (TG) lowering in pre-menopausal women, and investigate if low dose DHA-rich tuna oil supplementation would increase the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle sizes. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted, in which 53 healthy pre-menopausal women with mildly elevated plasma TG levels consumed 0, 0.35, 0.7, or 1 g/day n-3 LCPUFA as HiDHA™ tuna oil or placebo (Sunola oil) capsules for 8 weeks. Supplementation with 1 g/day n-3 LCPUFA, but not lower doses, reduced plasma TG by 23% in pre-menopausal women. This was reflected in a dose-dependent reduction in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG (R2 = 0.20, p = 0.003). A weak dose-dependent shift in HDL (but not LDL) particle size was identified (R2 = 0.05, p = 0.04). The results of this study indicate that DHA-rich n-3 LCPUFA supplementation at a dose of 1 g/day is an effective TG-lowering agent and increases HDL particle size in pre-menopausal women. View Full-Text
Keywords: DHA; plasma lipids; lipoproteins; premenopausal women DHA; plasma lipids; lipoproteins; premenopausal women
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Sparkes, C.; Gibson, R.; Sinclair, A.; Else, P.L.; Meyer, B.J. Effect of Low Dose Docosahexaenoic Acid-Rich Fish Oil on Plasma Lipids and Lipoproteins in Pre-Menopausal Women: A Dose–Response Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1460.

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