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Review

Vitamin D Fortification of Fluid Milk Products and Their Contribution to Vitamin D Intake and Vitamin D Status in Observational Studies—A Review

Department of Food and Nutrition, P.O. Box 66, 00014 University of Helsinki, 00790 Helsinki, Finland
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Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081054
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 4 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products)
Fluid milk products are systematically, either mandatorily or voluntarily, fortified with vitamin D in some countries but their overall contribution to vitamin D intake and status worldwide is not fully understood. We searched the PubMed database to evaluate the contribution of vitamin D-fortified fluid milk products (regular milk and fermented products) to vitamin D intake and serum or plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in observational studies during 1993–2017. Twenty studies provided data on 25(OH)D status (n = 19,744), and 22 provided data on vitamin D intake (n = 99,023). Studies showed positive associations between the consumption of vitamin D-fortified milk and 25(OH)D status in different population groups. In countries with a national vitamin D fortification policy covering various fluid milk products (Finland, Canada, United States), milk products contributed 28–63% to vitamin D intake, while in countries without a fortification policy, or when the fortification covered only some dairy products (Sweden, Norway), the contribution was much lower or negligible. To conclude, based on the reviewed observational studies, vitamin D-fortified fluid milk products contribute to vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D status. However, their impact on vitamin D intake at the population level depends on whether vitamin D fortification is systematic and policy-based. View Full-Text
Keywords: dairy; vitamin D; vitamin D-fortified milk; vitamin D intake; vitamin D fortification; 25-hydroxyvitamin D dairy; vitamin D; vitamin D-fortified milk; vitamin D intake; vitamin D fortification; 25-hydroxyvitamin D
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MDPI and ACS Style

Itkonen, S.T.; Erkkola, M.; Lamberg-Allardt, C.J.E. Vitamin D Fortification of Fluid Milk Products and Their Contribution to Vitamin D Intake and Vitamin D Status in Observational Studies—A Review. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1054. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081054

AMA Style

Itkonen ST, Erkkola M, Lamberg-Allardt CJE. Vitamin D Fortification of Fluid Milk Products and Their Contribution to Vitamin D Intake and Vitamin D Status in Observational Studies—A Review. Nutrients. 2018; 10(8):1054. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081054

Chicago/Turabian Style

Itkonen, Suvi T., Maijaliisa Erkkola, and Christel J.E. Lamberg-Allardt 2018. "Vitamin D Fortification of Fluid Milk Products and Their Contribution to Vitamin D Intake and Vitamin D Status in Observational Studies—A Review" Nutrients 10, no. 8: 1054. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081054

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