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Open AccessArticle

Associations of Dairy Intake with Arterial Stiffness in Brazilian Adults: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

1
Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória CEP 29042-755, Brazil
2
Escola de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte CEP 30130-100, Brazil
3
Instituto de Saúde Coletiva, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador CEP 40110-040, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060701
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products)
Recent studies have suggested the possible effect of dairy product intake on cardiovascular risk markers, including arterial stiffness. Our aim was to investigate whether dairy food intake is associated with arterial stiffness, which we assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and pulse pressure (PP) in a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data (2008–2010; n = 12,892) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Dairy consumption was evaluated with a validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by computing servings per day for total and subgroups of dairy products. Dairy consumption was described in four categories (≤1 serving/day to >4 servings/day). Covariance analysis (ANCOVA) was used to compare cfPWV across increasing intake of dairy food, adjusting for confounding factors, including non-dairy food groups. The intake of total dairy was inversely associated with cfPWV and PP (−0.13 m/s and −1.3 mmHg, from the lowest and to the highest category of dairy intake). Low-fat dairy, fermented dairy and cheese showed an inverse relationship with cfPWV and PP. These findings suggest a beneficial effect of dairy consumption to reduce arterial stiffness. However, further evidence from longitudinal studies or long-term intervention is needed to support reduction of cfPWV and PP mediating the beneficial effects of dairy products on cardiovascular health. View Full-Text
Keywords: dairy; cardiovascular health; pulse wave velocity; arterial stiffness dairy; cardiovascular health; pulse wave velocity; arterial stiffness
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ribeiro, A.G.; Mill, J.G.; Cade, N.V.; Velasquez-Melendez, G.; Matos, S.M.A.; Molina, M.D.C.B. Associations of Dairy Intake with Arterial Stiffness in Brazilian Adults: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Nutrients 2018, 10, 701.

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