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Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050550

Daily Intake of Milk Powder and Risk of Celiac Disease in Early Childhood: A Nested Case-Control Study

1
The Diabetes and Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 202 05 Malmö, Sweden
2
Health Informatics Institute, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, 33620 FL Tampa, USA
3
Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Chemical Center, Lund University, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
4
Tampere Center for Child Health Research, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, 33521 Tampere, Finland
5
Unit of Nutrition, National Institute for Health and Welfare, 00271 Helsinki, Finland; Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere Center for Child Health Research, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital and the Science Center of Pirkanmaa Hospital District Tampere, 33521 Tampere, Finland
6
Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 80045 CO Aurora, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 26 April 2018 / Published: 28 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products)
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Abstract

Milk powder and gluten are common components in Swedish infants’ diets. Whereas large intakes of gluten early in life increases the risk of celiac disease in genetically at-risk Swedish children, no study has yet evaluated if intake of milk powder by 2 years of age is associated with celiac disease. A 1-to-3 nested case-control study, comprised of 207 celiac disease children and 621 controls matched for sex, birth year, and HLA genotype, was performed on a birth cohort of HLA-DR3-DQ2 and/or DR4-DQ8-positive children. Subjects were screened annually for celiac disease using tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA). Three-day food records estimated the mean intake of milk powder at ages 6 months, 9 months, 12 months, 18 months, and 24 months. Conditional logistic regression calculated odds ratios (OR) at last intake prior to seroconversion of tTGA positivity, and for each time-point respectively and adjusted for having a first-degree relative with celiac disease and gluten intake. Intake of milk powder prior to seroconversion of tTGA positivity was not associated with celiac disease (OR = 1.00; 95% CI = 0.99, 1.03; p = 0.763). In conclusion, intake of milk powder in early childhood is not associated with celiac disease in genetically susceptible children. View Full-Text
Keywords: infant feeding; Sweden; HLA; milk powder; formula; gluten; commercial infant foods infant feeding; Sweden; HLA; milk powder; formula; gluten; commercial infant foods
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Hård af Segerstad, E.M.; Lee, H.-S.; Andrén Aronsson, C.; Yang, J.; Uusitalo, U.; Sjöholm, I.; Rayner, M.; Kurppa, K.; Virtanen, S.M.; Norris, J.M.; Agardh, D.; on behalf of the TEDDY Study Group. Daily Intake of Milk Powder and Risk of Celiac Disease in Early Childhood: A Nested Case-Control Study. Nutrients 2018, 10, 550.

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