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Mechanisms of Calorie Restriction: A Review of Genes Required for the Life-Extending and Tumor-Inhibiting Effects of Calorie Restriction
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Anti-aging Effects of Calorie Restriction (CR) and CR Mimetics based on the Senoinflammation Concept

Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, 2, Busandaehak-ro 63 beon-gil, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 46241, Korea
Department of Physiology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
Department of Biopharmaceutical Engineering, Division of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 38066, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 422;
Received: 18 December 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2020 / Accepted: 3 February 2020 / Published: 6 February 2020
Chronic inflammation, a pervasive feature of the aging process, is defined by a continuous, multifarious, low-grade inflammatory response. It is a sustained and systemic phenomenon that aggravates aging and can lead to age-related chronic diseases. In recent years, our understanding of age-related chronic inflammation has advanced through a large number of investigations on aging and calorie restriction (CR). A broader view of age-related inflammation is the concept of senoinflammation, which has an outlook beyond the traditional view, as proposed in our previous work. In this review, we discuss the effects of CR on multiple phases of proinflammatory networks and inflammatory signaling pathways to elucidate the basic mechanism underlying aging. Based on studies on senoinflammation and CR, we recognized that senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which mainly comprises cytokines and chemokines, was significantly increased during aging, whereas it was suppressed during CR. Further, we recognized that cellular metabolic pathways were also dysregulated in aging; however, CR mimetics reversed these effects. These results further support and enhance our understanding of the novel concept of senoinflammation, which is related to the metabolic changes that occur in the aging process. Furthermore, a thorough elucidation of the effect of CR on senoinflammation will reveal key insights and allow possible interventions in aging mechanisms, thus contributing to the development of new therapies focused on improving health and longevity.
Keywords: aging; calorie restriction; senescence-associated secretory phenotype; senoinflammation; mimetics aging; calorie restriction; senescence-associated secretory phenotype; senoinflammation; mimetics
MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, D.H.; Bang, E.; Jung, H.J.; Noh, S.G.; Yu, B.P.; Choi, Y.J.; Chung, H.Y. Anti-aging Effects of Calorie Restriction (CR) and CR Mimetics based on the Senoinflammation Concept. Nutrients 2020, 12, 422.

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