Special Issue "The Toxicology of Nanomaterials, Including Modelling Nano-/Microplastics"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Janeck James Scott-Fordsmand
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Bioscience - Soil Fauna Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Vejlsovej 25, Aarhus University, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark
Interests: nano- /micro-toxicology including. mechanisms, general models, risk assessment, knowledge integration and transfer
Dr. Mónica Amorim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: nanotoxicology; toxicogenomics; soil ecotoxicology; mechanisms of response; systems toxicology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There has been tremendous progress in the development of novel nanomaterials (see other issues of this journal), including, among others, sophisticated doped-nanoparticles, complex metal-organic nanowires, functionalized graphene, and advanced hybrid coatings, scaffolds and plastics. There has been an equally tremendous advancement in the methodologies to investigate the potential toxicity of nanomaterials to humans and the environment, with novel methods covering, e.g., long-term toxicity, highly specific pathways, bioaccumulation, and the life-cycle of the organisms. However, there has been an insufficient interaction between the material developers/-modelers and the environmental/human-health experts; the very reason for this special issue. Although it is known that the nanomaterial toxicity depends on the material composition, structure, coating, size, etc., there is a need to further emphasize approaches (e.g., modelling or ranking) that take into account the novel developments. Further, considering that the descriptors in general remain the same for nano- and micro materials and that 100 nm is not a strict threshold in regard to the material-biology interactions, this means that nanomaterial studies should also be able to provide valuable insight into the toxicity of sub-micro and micro-size materials, even entering the micro-plastic ranges. 

This Special Issue will focus broadly on the toxicity of nanomaterials and welcome a broad array of studies. Particularly important will be to obtain a mixture of articles with different approaches and materials, in which there is a discussion on the usefulness of the respective studies to elicit other materials or endpoints. This covers papers focusing on both specific and general toxicity, among others including omics response, bioaccumulation, secondary-poisoning, long-term consequences, and multigenerational issues.

Dr. Janeck James Scott-Fordsmand
Dr. Mónica Amorim
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Modelling
  • Environment
  • Human Health, ecotoxicology
  • Nanomaterials
  • Micromaterials
  • Microplastics

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Cell In Vitro Testing with Soil Invertebrates—Challenges and Opportunities toward Modeling the Effect of Nanomaterials: A Surface-Modified CuO Case Study
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(8), 1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9081087 - 29 Jul 2019
Abstract
Soil invertebrates have been widely used in ecotoxicology studies for decades, although their use as in vitro models, albeit promising, has not been pursued as much. The immune cells of earthworms (coelomocytes) and the coelomic fluid can be used, and are a highly [...] Read more.
Soil invertebrates have been widely used in ecotoxicology studies for decades, although their use as in vitro models, albeit promising, has not been pursued as much. The immune cells of earthworms (coelomocytes) and the coelomic fluid can be used, and are a highly relevant in vitro system. Although it has been tested before, to cover the testing of nanomaterials (NMs), several challenges should be considered. NMs characteristics (dispersibility, agglomeration, etc.) can interfere with the common in vitro methodologies, not only during exposure, but also during the measurements. Here, we have assessed the effect of a CuO NMs case study using surface-modified particles, functionalized for safe-by-design strategies with ascorbate, citrate, polyethylenimine, and polyvinylpyrrolidinone, plus the pristine CuO NMs and copper chloride (CuCl2) for comparison. Eisenia fetida’s coelomocytes were exposed for 24 h via the coelomic fluid. Changes in cell viability were evaluated using flow cytometry. All materials affected the cells in a dose-related manner, where CuCl2 was the most toxic followed by the citrate-coated CuO NM. There was a strong correlation between NM characteristics, e.g., the hydrodynamic size, and the EC50 (50% Effect Concentrations) values. This screening further confirms the potential for the usage of the standard earthworm model as an in vitro standard. Further detailed in vitro studies are needed using other NMs aiming toward their implementation and standardization. Additional cell endpoints can also be assessed, making it a high content tool for mechanistic understanding. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Graphene-Based Nanomaterials in Soil: Ecotoxicity Assessment Using Enchytraeus crypticus Reduced Full Life Cycle
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(6), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060858 - 05 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs) possess unique physicochemical properties, allowing a wide range of applications in physical, chemical, and biomedical fields. Although GBNs are broadly used, information about their adverse effects on ecosystem health, especially in the terrestrial environment, is limited. Therefore, this study aims [...] Read more.
Graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs) possess unique physicochemical properties, allowing a wide range of applications in physical, chemical, and biomedical fields. Although GBNs are broadly used, information about their adverse effects on ecosystem health, especially in the terrestrial environment, is limited. Therefore, this study aims to assess the toxicity of two commonly used derivatives of GBNs, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), in the soil invertebrate Enchytraeus crypticus using a reduced full life cycle test. At higher exposure concentrations, GO induced high mortality and severe impairment in the reproduction rate, while rGO showed little adverse effect up to 1000 mg/kg. Collectively, our body of results suggests that the degree of oxidation of GO correlates with their toxic effects on E. crypticus, which argues against generalization on GBNs ecotoxicity. Identifying the key factors affecting the toxicity of GBNs, including ecotoxicity, is urgent for the design of safe GBNs for commercial purposes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots Impaired the First Two Generations of Placenta Growth in an Animal Model, Based on the Shh Signaling Pathway
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020257 - 14 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The toxicity, especially the transgenerational toxicity of quantum dots (QDs) in vivo, is still scarcely understood in spite of great promising applications of QDs in biomedicine. In this study, the maternal status, pregnancy outcome, and fetus development of parental generation (P0) to offspring [...] Read more.
The toxicity, especially the transgenerational toxicity of quantum dots (QDs) in vivo, is still scarcely understood in spite of great promising applications of QDs in biomedicine. In this study, the maternal status, pregnancy outcome, and fetus development of parental generation (P0) to offspring in three generations (F3) were investigated after Kunming mice perinatal (GD 13-PND 5) exposure to Cd containing QDs (CdSe/ZnS QDs) and CdCl2. The results show CdSe/ZnS QDs induced placenta injuries in P0 and diminished placenta diameters in F1 and F2. Bodyweight growth decreased in the CdSe/ZnS QDs treatment group in the F1 and F2 generation. Additionally, CdSe/ZnS QDs significantly altered the expression of key genes in the Shh signal pathway. Overall, this study exhibited that the CdSe/ZnS QDs exposure during perinatal period impaired placenta growth in the first two generations, but not on the third generation. The toxicological actions of the CdSe/ZnS QDs might be through the effects on the Shh signal pathway. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Neurotoxicity of Nanomaterials: An Up-to-Date Overview
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010096 - 13 Jan 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
The field of nanotechnology, through which nanomaterials are designed, characterized, produced, and applied, is rapidly emerging in various fields, including energy, electronics, food and agriculture, environmental science, cosmetics, and medicine. The most common biomedical applications of nanomaterials involve drug delivery, bioimaging, and gene [...] Read more.
The field of nanotechnology, through which nanomaterials are designed, characterized, produced, and applied, is rapidly emerging in various fields, including energy, electronics, food and agriculture, environmental science, cosmetics, and medicine. The most common biomedical applications of nanomaterials involve drug delivery, bioimaging, and gene and cancer therapy. Since they possess unique properties which are different than bulk materials, toxic effects and long-term impacts on organisms are not completely known. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to emphasize the main neurotoxic effects induced by nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and quantum dots, as well as the key neurotoxicology assays to evaluate them. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Health Concerns of Various Nanoparticles: A Review of Their in Vitro and in Vivo Toxicity
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(9), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090634 - 21 Aug 2018
Cited by 19
Abstract
Nanoparticles (NPs) are currently used in diagnosis and treatment of many human diseases, including autoimmune diseases and cancer. However, cytotoxic effects of NPs on normal cells and living organs is a severe limiting factor that hinders their use in clinic. In addition, diversity [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles (NPs) are currently used in diagnosis and treatment of many human diseases, including autoimmune diseases and cancer. However, cytotoxic effects of NPs on normal cells and living organs is a severe limiting factor that hinders their use in clinic. In addition, diversity of NPs and their physico-chemical properties, including particle size, shape, surface area, dispersity and protein corona effects are considered as key factors that have a crucial impact on their safe or toxicological behaviors. Current studies on toxic effects of NPs are aimed to identify the targets and mechanisms of their side effects, with a focus on elucidating the patterns of NP transport, accumulation, degradation, and elimination, in both in vitro and in vitro models. NPs can enter the body through inhalation, skin and digestive routes. Consequently, there is a need for reliable information about effects of NPs on various organs in order to reveal their efficacy and impact on health. This review covers the existing knowledge base on the subject that hopefully prepares us better to address these challenges. Full article
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