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Review

Health Concerns of Various Nanoparticles: A Review of Their in Vitro and in Vivo Toxicity

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Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran P.O. Box 1449614525, Iran
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Department of Molecular Medicine, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran P.O Box 14965/161, Iran
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Cancer Biology Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran P.O. Box 13145-158, Iran
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Department of Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advance Science and Technology, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branches, Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Tehran P.O. Box 1916893813, Iran
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Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Abadan School of Medical Sciences, Abadan P.O. Box 517, Iran
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Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman P.O. Box 1355576169, Iran
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Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, and Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman P.O. Box 7616911319, Iran
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School of Medicine, International Branch, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 7134845794, Iran
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Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Faculty of Science, Palacky University in Olomouc, Šlechtitelů 27, 783 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(9), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090634
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
Nanoparticles (NPs) are currently used in diagnosis and treatment of many human diseases, including autoimmune diseases and cancer. However, cytotoxic effects of NPs on normal cells and living organs is a severe limiting factor that hinders their use in clinic. In addition, diversity of NPs and their physico-chemical properties, including particle size, shape, surface area, dispersity and protein corona effects are considered as key factors that have a crucial impact on their safe or toxicological behaviors. Current studies on toxic effects of NPs are aimed to identify the targets and mechanisms of their side effects, with a focus on elucidating the patterns of NP transport, accumulation, degradation, and elimination, in both in vitro and in vitro models. NPs can enter the body through inhalation, skin and digestive routes. Consequently, there is a need for reliable information about effects of NPs on various organs in order to reveal their efficacy and impact on health. This review covers the existing knowledge base on the subject that hopefully prepares us better to address these challenges. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; toxicological effects; organ-specific effects nanoparticles; toxicological effects; organ-specific effects
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ajdary, M.; Moosavi, M.A.; Rahmati, M.; Falahati, M.; Mahboubi, M.; Mandegary, A.; Jangjoo, S.; Mohammadinejad, R.; Varma, R.S. Health Concerns of Various Nanoparticles: A Review of Their in Vitro and in Vivo Toxicity. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 634. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090634

AMA Style

Ajdary M, Moosavi MA, Rahmati M, Falahati M, Mahboubi M, Mandegary A, Jangjoo S, Mohammadinejad R, Varma RS. Health Concerns of Various Nanoparticles: A Review of Their in Vitro and in Vivo Toxicity. Nanomaterials. 2018; 8(9):634. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090634

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ajdary, Marziyeh, Mohammad Amin Moosavi, Marveh Rahmati, Mojtaba Falahati, Mohammad Mahboubi, Ali Mandegary, Saranaz Jangjoo, Reza Mohammadinejad, and Rajender S. Varma. 2018. "Health Concerns of Various Nanoparticles: A Review of Their in Vitro and in Vivo Toxicity" Nanomaterials 8, no. 9: 634. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090634

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