Special Issue "Non-cytotoxic Nanoparticles"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Raphaël Schneider
Website
Guest Editor
Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés, Université de Lorraine, CNRS Address: 1, rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 Nancy, France
Interests: nanoparticles; fluorescence; bio-imaging; sensing; catalysis; photocatalysis
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the emergence of engineered nanoparticles in a broad range of applications and in several consumer products, toxicological studies have demonstrated that these materials may exhibit complex cytotoxicity depending, among other reasons, on their chemical composition, surface charge states, size and shape, and physicochemical stability.

This Special Issue intends to focus on recently-engineered nanoparticles including semiconductor nanocrystals, iron oxide, graphene, carbon, gold, silver, silica, dendrimers, polymers, etc., exhibiting low toxicity. Synthetic processes, surface modifications, coatings, etc., developed to optimize the design of nanoparticles in view of decreasing their toxicity to biological systems are also of interest.

Prof. Raphaël Schneider
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nanomaterials
  • nanoparticles
  • non-cytotoxic
  • synthesis optimization
  • surface modification
  • coating

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
One-Step Synthesis of Diamine-Functionalized Graphene Quantum Dots from Graphene Oxide and Their Chelating and Antioxidant Activities
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(1), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10010104 - 04 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
2,2’-(Ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine)-functionalized graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were prepared under mild conditions from graphene oxide (GO) via oxidative fragmentation. The as-prepared GQDs have an average diameter of ca. 4 nm, possess good colloidal stability, and emit strong green-yellow light with a photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield [...] Read more.
2,2’-(Ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine)-functionalized graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were prepared under mild conditions from graphene oxide (GO) via oxidative fragmentation. The as-prepared GQDs have an average diameter of ca. 4 nm, possess good colloidal stability, and emit strong green-yellow light with a photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield of 22% upon excitation at 375 nm. We also demonstrated that the GQDs exhibit high photostability and the PL intensity is poorly affected while tuning the pH from 1 to 8. Finally, GQDs can be used to chelate Fe(II) and Cu(II) cations, scavenge radicals, and reduce Fe(III) into Fe(II). These chelating and reducing properties that associate to the low cytotoxicity of GQDs show that these nanoparticles are of high interest as antioxidants for health applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-cytotoxic Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Approach towards Synthesis and Characterization of Non-Cytotoxic Gold Nanoparticles Using Taurine as Capping Agent
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10010045 - 24 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Metal gold nanoparticles are of great interest due to their unique physico-chemical properties and their potential to be used as nano-probes in biosensors, drug delivery, and therapeutic applications. Currently, many capping agents are used for metal gold nanoparticles, such as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) [...] Read more.
Metal gold nanoparticles are of great interest due to their unique physico-chemical properties and their potential to be used as nano-probes in biosensors, drug delivery, and therapeutic applications. Currently, many capping agents are used for metal gold nanoparticles, such as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and tri-sodium citrate that have been reported to be toxic and hinders biological applications. To address this issue, we report, for the first time, the use of taurine as a stable non-cytotoxic capping agent for synthesizing gold nanoparticles by using an in situ wet-chemical method. This facile method resulted in monodisperse gold nanospheres with a high yield and stability. Monodisperse gold nanospheres with average diameters of 6.9 nm and 46 nm were synthesized at a high yield with controlled morphology. Temperature played a critical role in determining the size of the taurine-capped gold nanoparticles. The subtle changes in the reaction parameters had a tremendous effect on the final size of nanoparticles and their stability. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by using optical spectroscopy, a ZetaSizer, a NanoSight, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photon Spectroscopy (XPS) and Electron Microscopy to understand their physico-chemical properties. Taurine was explored as a capping and stabilizing agent for gold nanospheres, which were evaluated for their toxicity responses towards human liver carcinoma cells (HepG2) via MTT assay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-cytotoxic Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
Grouping of Poorly Soluble Low (Cyto)Toxic Particles: Example with 15 Selected Nanoparticles and A549 Human Lung Cells
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050704 - 06 May 2019
Abstract
Poorly soluble, low (cyto)toxic particles (PSLTs) are often regarded as one group, but it is important that these particles can be further differentiated based on their bioactivity. Currently, there are no biological endpoint based groupings for inhaled nanoparticles (NPs) that would allow us [...] Read more.
Poorly soluble, low (cyto)toxic particles (PSLTs) are often regarded as one group, but it is important that these particles can be further differentiated based on their bioactivity. Currently, there are no biological endpoint based groupings for inhaled nanoparticles (NPs) that would allow us to subgroup PSLTs based on their mode of action. The aim of this study was to group NPs based on their cytotoxicity and by using the in vitro response of the endo-lysosomal system as a biological endpoint. The endo-lysosomal system is a main cellular loading site for NPs. An impaired endo-lysosomal system in alveolar type II cells may have serious adverse effects on the maintenance of pulmonary surfactant homeostasis. The 15 different NPs were tested with human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. The highly soluble NPs were most cytotoxic. With respect to PSLTs, only three NPs increased the cellular load of acid and phospholipid rich organelles indicating particle biopersistence. All the rest PSLTs could be regarded as low hazardous. The presented in vitro test system could serve as a fast screening tool to group particles according to their ability to interfere with lung surfactant metabolism. We discuss the applicability of the suggested test system for bringing together substances with similar modes-of-action on lung epithelium. In addition, we discuss this approach as a benchmark test for the comparative assessment of biopersistence of PSLTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-cytotoxic Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Assessment of Nanotoxicity Induced by Metal (Silver, Nickel) and Metal Oxide (Cobalt, Chromium) Nanoparticles in Labeo rohita
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020309 - 25 Feb 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
In the present in vivo study, we provide a comparison of toxicological consequences induced by four different types of spherical nanoparticles (NPs)—silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, 40 ± 6 nm), nickel (NiNPs, 43 ± 6 nm), cobalt oxide (Co3O4NPs, 60 ± [...] Read more.
In the present in vivo study, we provide a comparison of toxicological consequences induced by four different types of spherical nanoparticles (NPs)—silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, 40 ± 6 nm), nickel (NiNPs, 43 ± 6 nm), cobalt oxide (Co3O4NPs, 60 ± 6 nm), and chromium oxide (Cr3O4NPs, 50 ± 5 nm)—on freshwater fish Labeo rohita. Fish were exposed to NPs (25 mg/L) for 21 days. We observed a NPs type-dependent toxicity in fish. An altered behavior showing signs of stress and a substantial reduction in total leukocyte count was noticed in all NP-treated groups. A low total erythrocyte count in all NP-treated fish except for Co3O4NPs was discerned while a low survival rate in the case of Cr3O4NP-treated fish was observed. A significant decrease in growth and hemoglobin were noticed in NiNP- and Cr3O4NP-treated fish. A considerable total protein elevation was detected in NiNP-, Co3O4NP-, and Cr3O4NP-treated groups. An upgrading in albumin level was witnessed in Co3O4NP- and Cr3O4NP-treated groups while a high level of globulin was noted in NiNP- and Co3O4NP-exposed groups. In all NP-treated groups, a depleted activity of antioxidative enzymes and pathological lesions in liver and kidney were noticed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-cytotoxic Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of Messenger RNA Nanomicelles via Non-Cytotoxic PEG-Polyamine Nanocomplex for Intracerebroventicular Delivery: A Proof-of-Concept Study in Mouse Models
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010067 - 05 Jan 2019
Abstract
The specific delivery of messenger RNA (mRNA) is an excellent alternative to plasmid DNA, due to the latter’s potential risk for random integration into the host genome. In this study, we propose the use of specially tailored polyplex nanomicelles for the intravenous delivery [...] Read more.
The specific delivery of messenger RNA (mRNA) is an excellent alternative to plasmid DNA, due to the latter’s potential risk for random integration into the host genome. In this study, we propose the use of specially tailored polyplex nanomicelles for the intravenous delivery of mRNA into the brain of mice. In brief, along the backbone of a polyaspartamide polymer that is terminated with a 42k Polyethylene glycol chain (PEG), aminoethylene-repeating groups (two, three, and four units, respectively) were conjugated to side-chains to promote electrostatic interactions with mRNA. This structural configuration would ultimately condense into a polyplex nanomicelle ranging between 24 and 34 nm, as was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) while the chemistry of the synthesis was validated through NMR analysis. Subsequently, we hypothesized an important correlation pertaining to the role of hydrogen bonding between the interaction of polyamine and mRNA in due course. As a proof of concept, we encapsulated the luciferase (Luc2) mRNA as a reporter gene through in vitro transcription (IVT) and subsequently infused the polyplex nanomicelles into mouse brains via an intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection to bypass the blood–brain barriers (BBB). Data revealed that PEGylated polyplex nanomicelles possessing four repeating units of aminoethylene groups had exhibited the best Luc2 mRNA delivery efficiency with no significant immune response registered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-cytotoxic Nanoparticles)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Modulating Tumor Cell Functions by Tunable Nanopatterned Ligand Presentation
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020212 - 26 Jan 2020
Abstract
Cancer comprises a large group of complex diseases which arise from the misrouted interplay of mutated cells with other cells and the extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix is a highly dynamic structure providing biochemical and biophysical cues that regulate tumor cell behavior. While [...] Read more.
Cancer comprises a large group of complex diseases which arise from the misrouted interplay of mutated cells with other cells and the extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix is a highly dynamic structure providing biochemical and biophysical cues that regulate tumor cell behavior. While the relevance of biochemical signals has been appreciated, the complex input of biophysical properties like the variation of ligand density and distribution is a relatively new field in cancer research. Nanotechnology has become a very promising tool to mimic the physiological dimension of biophysical signals and their positive (i.e., growth-promoting) and negative (i.e., anti-tumoral or cytotoxic) effects on cellular functions. Here, we review tumor-associated cellular functions such as proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion, and phenotype switch that are regulated by biophysical parameters such as ligand density or substrate elasticity. We also address the question of how such factors exert inhibitory or even toxic effects upon tumor cells. We describe three principles of nanostructured model systems based on block copolymer nanolithography, electron beam lithography, and DNA origami that have contributed to our understanding of how biophysical signals direct cancer cell fate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-cytotoxic Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessReview
Nanomaterials in Plants: A Review of Hazard and Applications in the Agri-Food Sector
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(8), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9081094 - 30 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Agricultural food crop plants interact with engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) from the application of agri-food nanotechnologies and from unintentional emissions originating from other nanotechnologies. Both types of exposure present implications for agricultural yield and quality, food chain transfer, and environmental and human health. In [...] Read more.
Agricultural food crop plants interact with engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) from the application of agri-food nanotechnologies and from unintentional emissions originating from other nanotechnologies. Both types of exposure present implications for agricultural yield and quality, food chain transfer, and environmental and human health. In this review, the most recent findings from agricultural plant-ENM studies published in 2017 and 2018 are summarized. The aim of this is to identify the current hazard potential of ENMs for plants grown under typical field conditions that originate from both intentional and unintentional exposures and to contribute to knowledge-based decisions on the application of ENMs in food-agriculture. We also address recent knowledge on ENM adsorption, internalization, translocation, and bioaccumulation by plants, ENM impacts on agricultural crop yield and nutrition, and ENM biotransformation. Using adverse effect level concentrations and data on ENM accumulation in environmental matrices, the literature analyses revealed that C-, Ag-, Ce-, and Ti-based ENMs are unlikely to pose a risk to plants grown under typical field conditions, whereas Cu- and Zn-based ENMs require surveillance. Since multiple factors (e.g., ENM concentration, route of exposure, and plant type) influence the effects of ENMs on plants, biomonitoring is recommended for tracking ENM environmental exposure in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-cytotoxic Nanoparticles)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Graphene-like layers from carbon black: in vivo toxicity assessment
Authors: M. d'Amora,a Michela Alfè,b Valentina Gargiulo,b and S. Giordani,c*
Affiliation: a, Nano Carbon Materials, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genoa, Italy b, Institute for Research on Combustion (IRC)-CNR, Naples, Italy c, School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland
Abstract: Upcoming soon!

Title: NON-TOXIC SILVER / POLY-1-VINYL-1,2,4-TRIAZOLE NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIALS WITH ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY
Authors: Irina Shurygina
Affiliation: Deputy Director for Science Irkutsk Scientific Center of Surgery and Traumatology D.Sc. in Medicine, Professor
Abstract: Novel silver/poly-1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole nanocomposite materials, possessing antimicrobial activity against gram-(+), (–)-bacteria and fungi have been synthesized and characterized in the solid state and aqueous solution by complex of complementary physical-chemical methods. TEM-monitoring has revealed the main stages of microbial cell (E coli) destruction by novel nanocomposite. The concept of direct polarized destruction of microbes by nanosilver developed by the authors allows the relationship between physico-chemical and antimicrobial properties of novel nanocomposites. At the same time, the nanocomposite was not toxic to the fibroblast cell culture. Thus, the developed nanocomposite combining antibacterial activity against gram - (+), (-) - bacteria and fungi and the absence of toxic effects on mammalian cells is a promising material for the development of catheters, coatings for medical devices.

Title: A comparative Assessment as Radiosensitizers for cancer by Titanium Peroxide Nanoparticle and Gold Nanoparticles
Authors: Ryohei Sasaki
Affiliation: Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyogo, Japan
Abstract: Titanium peroxide nanoparticle was originally produced from titanium dioxide nanoparticle and showed excellent reactive oxygen species generation in response to ionizing radiation. Surface coating by polyacrylic acid of the titanium peroxide nanoparticles (PAA-TiOxNPs) showed low toxicity to the body, but excellent radiosensitizing effect to cancers. Here, we evaluated the biological response of the PAA-TiOxNPs with comparison to gold nanoparticles, which is a representative high-atomic-number nanoparticles showing radiation effects through the emission of secondary electrons. Anti-cancer effects were compared by induction of apoptosis, colony forming assay, and immunohistochemistry of the tumor. Biological responses were evaluated by activation of several antioxidant enzymes.

Title: Cytotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials on human lymphatic endothelial cells
Authors: Mahoko Sano, Makoto Izumiya, Katsuya Ueda, Haruka Ishida, Kosuke Konishi, Kaoru Aoki, Naoto Saito, Hisao Haniu
Affiliation: Shinshu University, 3 Chome-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621, Japan
Abstract: Upcoming soon~

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