Next Article in Journal
Enhanced Antibacterial Activity of Poly (dimethylsiloxane) Membranes by Incorporating SiO2 Microspheres Generated Silver Nanoparticles
Next Article in Special Issue
Nanomaterials in Plants: A Review of Hazard and Applications in the Agri-Food Sector
Previous Article in Journal
Directly Grown Multiwall Carbon Nanotube and Hydrothermal MnO2 Composite for High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Comparative Assessment of Nanotoxicity Induced by Metal (Silver, Nickel) and Metal Oxide (Cobalt, Chromium) Nanoparticles in Labeo rohita
Open AccessArticle

Grouping of Poorly Soluble Low (Cyto)Toxic Particles: Example with 15 Selected Nanoparticles and A549 Human Lung Cells

1
Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Warheit Scientific LLC, Wilmington, DE 19801, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050704
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 6 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Cytotoxic Nanoparticles)
Poorly soluble, low (cyto)toxic particles (PSLTs) are often regarded as one group, but it is important that these particles can be further differentiated based on their bioactivity. Currently, there are no biological endpoint based groupings for inhaled nanoparticles (NPs) that would allow us to subgroup PSLTs based on their mode of action. The aim of this study was to group NPs based on their cytotoxicity and by using the in vitro response of the endo-lysosomal system as a biological endpoint. The endo-lysosomal system is a main cellular loading site for NPs. An impaired endo-lysosomal system in alveolar type II cells may have serious adverse effects on the maintenance of pulmonary surfactant homeostasis. The 15 different NPs were tested with human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. The highly soluble NPs were most cytotoxic. With respect to PSLTs, only three NPs increased the cellular load of acid and phospholipid rich organelles indicating particle biopersistence. All the rest PSLTs could be regarded as low hazardous. The presented in vitro test system could serve as a fast screening tool to group particles according to their ability to interfere with lung surfactant metabolism. We discuss the applicability of the suggested test system for bringing together substances with similar modes-of-action on lung epithelium. In addition, we discuss this approach as a benchmark test for the comparative assessment of biopersistence of PSLTs. View Full-Text
Keywords: biopersistent particles; poorly soluble low toxicity particles (PSLTs); endo-lysosomal organelles; alveolar type II cells; fast screening tools biopersistent particles; poorly soluble low toxicity particles (PSLTs); endo-lysosomal organelles; alveolar type II cells; fast screening tools
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kononenko, V.; Warheit, D.B.; Drobne, D. Grouping of Poorly Soluble Low (Cyto)Toxic Particles: Example with 15 Selected Nanoparticles and A549 Human Lung Cells. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 704.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop