Next-Generation Nanomaterials: Preparation and Applications

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 30049

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Biotechnology Department, Biotechnology and Bioanalysis Group, National Institute for Research and Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry, ICECHIM, Bucharest, Romania
Interests: biosensing nanosystems; analytical chemistry; biochemistry; enzymology; biosensors; immunosensors; electrochemistry; screen-printed electrodes; enzyme immobilization; electropolymerization; chemiluminescence; surface plasmon resonance; flow injection analysis; microfluidics; mycotoxins
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Guest Editor
1. Bioresources Department, Bioproducts Group, National Institute for Research and Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry, ICECHIM, Bucharest, Romania
2. Biotechnologies Faculty, University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Bucharest, Romania
Interests: plant biostimulants; microbial and plant biosynthetized nanoparticles; nanocellulose; chitin/chitosan and nanochitin/nanochitosan; alginate; stimuli-responsive nanoformulations; multifunctional nanosystems; circular bioeconomy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Polymers Department, Nanocomposite Group, National Institute for Research and Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry, ICECHIM, Bucharest, Romania
Interests: synthetic/natural nanofillers; synthetic/natural polymer (nano)composites; bio-based thermoplastics; melt processing; polymer masterbatches; automotive/packaging/biomedicine applications
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Next-generation nanomaterials comprise materials from the second and third generation, i.e., (re)active nanomaterials and nanostructures and, respectively, multifunctional nanosystems. Preparation of such next-generation nanomaterials is usually accomplished by various and/or combined physicochemical and biological techniques.

(Re)active nanomaterials and nanostructures have various applications in biomedicine, bioanalysis and biodiagnostic, forensic, agriculture, environmental protection, electronics, and communication. The nanomaterials/nanostructures are specifically (re)active to various stimuli, both (bio)chemical (pH, redox and gaseous signals, functional macromolecules, i.e., enzymes, antibodies, lectins, etc.) or physical (light, temperature,  electromagnetic fields). The stimuli responsiveness determines a higher specificity in performing a designed function, e.g., controlled released of active ingredients, biosensing, self-cleaning, or self-healing.

Multifunctional nanosystems are usually produced from the association of the stimuli-responsive nanoparticles and nanostructures and are complex systems characterized by emergency, i.e., unexpected properties resulting from the components’ interactions/synergism. Multifunctional nanosystems exhibit characteristics of the living systems and are not limited to specific responding or biosensing. Typical multifunctional nanosystems communicate, control, and actuate. Nanomachines for biomedical and environmental applications and synthetic systems performing photosynthesis or protein synthesis are illustrative applications of these multifunctional nanosystems.

This Special Issue is associated with the 17th International Symposium “Priorities of Chemistry for a Sustainable Development—PRIOCHEM.” It focuses on the most recent advances in the preparation and application of next-generation nanomaterials. Submissions from participants to the conference and non-participants are equally encouraged, as long as they fall within the scope of this Special Issue.

The Special Issue entitled “Next-Generation Nanomaterials: Preparation and Applications” welcomes scientific articles and reviews related to this field of (bio)nanotechnology.

Dr. Mihaela Doni
Dr. Florin Oancea
Dr. Zina Vuluga
Dr. Radu Claudiu Fierascu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • stimuli-responsive nanomaterials
  • nanomaterial bio-assisted synthesis and biosynthesis
  • controlled released nanostructures
  • biosensors and bioactuators
  • self-cleaning and self-healing nanostructures
  • bionanocomposites
  • biomedical applications
  • agricultural applications
  • environmental applications
  • automotive applications
  • packaging applications

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 5303 KiB  
Article
Nano-Silica Bubbled Structure Based Durable and Flexible Superhydrophobic Electrospun Nanofibrous Membrane for Extensive Functional Applications
by Misbah Batool, Hasan B. Albargi, Adnan Ahmad, Zahid Sarwar, Zubair Khaliq, Muhammad Bilal Qadir, Salman Noshear Arshad, Rizwan Tahir, Sultan Ali, Mohammed Jalalah, Muhammad Irfan and Farid A. Harraz
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(7), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13071146 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1603
Abstract
Nanoscale surface roughness has conventionally been induced by using complicated approaches; however, the homogeneity of superhydrophobic surface and hazardous pollutants continue to have existing challenges that require a solution. As a prospective solution, a novel bubbled-structured silica nanoparticle (SiO2) decorated electrospun [...] Read more.
Nanoscale surface roughness has conventionally been induced by using complicated approaches; however, the homogeneity of superhydrophobic surface and hazardous pollutants continue to have existing challenges that require a solution. As a prospective solution, a novel bubbled-structured silica nanoparticle (SiO2) decorated electrospun polyurethane (PU) nanofibrous membrane (SiO2@PU-NFs) was prepared through a synchronized electrospinning and electrospraying process. The SiO2@PU-NFs nanofibrous membrane exhibited a nanoscale hierarchical surface roughness, attributed to excellent superhydrophobicity. The SiO2@PU-NFs membrane had an optimized fiber diameter of 394 ± 105 nm and was fabricated with a 25 kV applied voltage, 18% PU concentration, 20 cm spinning distance, and 6% SiO2 nanoparticles. The resulting membrane exhibited a water contact angle of 155.23°. Moreover, the developed membrane attributed excellent mechanical properties (14.22 MPa tensile modulus, 134.5% elongation, and 57.12 kPa hydrostatic pressure). The composite nanofibrous membrane also offered good breathability characteristics (with an air permeability of 70.63 mm/s and a water vapor permeability of 4167 g/m2/day). In addition, the proposed composite nanofibrous membrane showed a significant water/oil separation efficiency of 99.98, 99.97, and 99.98% against the water/xylene, water/n-hexane, and water/toluene mixers. When exposed to severe mechanical stresses and chemicals, the composite nanofibrous membrane sustained its superhydrophobic quality (WCA greater than 155.23°) up to 50 abrasion, bending, and stretching cycles. Consequently, this composite structure could be a good alternative for various functional applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next-Generation Nanomaterials: Preparation and Applications)
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22 pages, 8809 KiB  
Article
Removal of Paracetamol from Aqueous Solutions by Photocatalytic Ozonation over TiO2-MexOy Thin Films
by Sorin Marius Avramescu, Irina Fierascu, Radu Claudiu Fierascu, Roxana Ioana Brazdis, Angel Vasile Nica, Claudia Butean, Elena Alina Olaru, Sorin Ulinici, Marian Nicolae Verziu and Anca Dumitru
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(4), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12040613 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2406
Abstract
Analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as paracetamol, diclofenac, and ibuprofen are frequently encountered in surface and ground water, thereby posing a significant risk to aquatic ecosystems. Our study reports the catalytic performances of nanosystems TiO2-MexOy (Me [...] Read more.
Analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as paracetamol, diclofenac, and ibuprofen are frequently encountered in surface and ground water, thereby posing a significant risk to aquatic ecosystems. Our study reports the catalytic performances of nanosystems TiO2-MexOy (Me = Ce, Sn) prepared by the sol-gel method and deposited onto glass slides by a dip-coating approach in the removal of paracetamol from aqueous solutions by catalytic ozonation. The effect of catalyst type and operation parameters on oxidation efficiency was assessed. In addition to improving this process, the present work simplifies it by avoiding the difficult step of catalyst separation. It was found that the thin films were capable of removing all pollutants from target compounds to the oxidation products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next-Generation Nanomaterials: Preparation and Applications)
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19 pages, 6621 KiB  
Article
Properties of Polysiloxane/Nanosilica Nanodielectrics for Wearable Electronic Devices
by Elena Ruxandra Radu, Denis Mihaela Panaitescu, Laura Andrei, Florin Ciuprina, Cristian Andi Nicolae, Augusta Raluca Gabor and Roxana Truşcă
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010095 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1593
Abstract
Polymer nanodielectrics characterized by good flexibility, processability, low dielectric loss and high dielectric permittivity are materials of interest for wearable electronic devices and intelligent textiles, and are highly in demand in robotics. In this study, an easily scalable and environmentally friendly method was [...] Read more.
Polymer nanodielectrics characterized by good flexibility, processability, low dielectric loss and high dielectric permittivity are materials of interest for wearable electronic devices and intelligent textiles, and are highly in demand in robotics. In this study, an easily scalable and environmentally friendly method was applied to obtain polysiloxane/nanosilica nanocomposites with a large content of nanofiller, of up to 30% by weight. Nanosilica was dispersed both as individual particles and as agglomerates; in nanocomposites with a lower amount of filler, the former prevailed, and at over 20 wt% nanosilica the agglomerates predominated. An improvement of both the tensile strength and modulus was observed for nanocomposites with 5–15 wt% nanosilica, and a strong increase of the storage modulus was observed with the increase of nanofiller concentration. Furthermore, an increase of the storage modulus of up to seven times was observed in the nanocomposites with 30 wt% nanosilica. The tensile modulus was well fitted by models that consider the aggregation of nanoparticles and the role of the interface. The dielectric spectra showed an increase of the real part of the complex relative permittivity with 33% for 30 wt% nanosilica in nanocomposites at a frequency of 1 KHz, whereas the loss tangent values were lower than 0.02 for all tested nanodielectrics in the radio frequency range between 1 KHz and 1 MHz. The polysiloxane–nanosilica nanocomposites developed in this work showed good flexibility; however, they also showed increased stiffness along with a stronger dielectric response than the unfilled polysiloxane, which recommends them as dielectric substrates for wearable electronic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next-Generation Nanomaterials: Preparation and Applications)
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23 pages, 5983 KiB  
Article
High-Efficiency Biocidal Solution Based on Radiochemically Synthesized Cu-Au Alloy Nanoparticles
by Eduard-Marius Lungulescu, Radu Setnescu, Eros A. Pătroi, Magdalena V. Lungu, Delia Pătroi, Ioana Ion, Radu-Claudiu Fierăscu, Raluca Șomoghi, Miruna Stan and Nicoleta-Oana Nicula
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(12), 3388; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11123388 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3280
Abstract
The use of nanotechnologies in the applied biomedical sciences can offer a new way to treat infections and disinfect surfaces, materials, and products contaminated with various types of viruses, bacteria, and fungi. The Cu-Au nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained by an eco-friendly method that [...] Read more.
The use of nanotechnologies in the applied biomedical sciences can offer a new way to treat infections and disinfect surfaces, materials, and products contaminated with various types of viruses, bacteria, and fungi. The Cu-Au nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained by an eco-friendly method that allowed the obtaining in a one-step process of size controlled, well dispersed, fully reduced, highly stable NPs at very mild conditions, using high energy ionizing radiations. The gamma irradiation was performed in an aqueous system of Cu2+/Au3+/Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)/Ethylene Glycol. After irradiation, the change of color to ruby-red was the first indicator for the formation of NPs. Moreover, the UV-Vis spectra showed a maximum absorption peak between 524 and 540 nm, depending on the copper amount. The Cu-Au NPs presented nearly spherical shapes, sizes between 20 and 90 nm, and a zeta potential of about −44 mV indicating a good electrostatic stability. The biocidal properties performed according to various standards applied in the medical area, in dirty conditions, showed a 5 lg reduction for Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus hirae, a 5 lg reduction for both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses such as Adenovirus type 5, Murine Norovirus, and human Coronavirus 229E, and a 4 lg reduction for Candida albicans, respectively. Thus, the radiochemically synthesized Cu-Au alloy NPs proved to have high biocide efficiency against the tested bacteria, fungi, and viruses (both encapsulated and non-encapsulated). Therefore, these nanoparticle solutions are suitable to be used as disinfectants in the decontamination of hospital surfaces or public areas characterized by high levels of microbiological contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next-Generation Nanomaterials: Preparation and Applications)
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16 pages, 4120 KiB  
Article
A Comparison between Silver Nanosquare Arrays and Silver Thin-Films as a Blood Cancer Prognosis Monitoring Electrode Design Using Optical and Electrochemical Characterization
by Nasori Nasori, Ulya Farahdina, Vinda Zakiyatuz Zulfa, Miftakhul Firdhaus, Ihwanul Aziz, Darsono Darsono, Dawei Cao, Zhijie Wang, Endarko Endarko and Agus Rubiyanto
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 3108; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11113108 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1970
Abstract
The development of silver (Ag) thin films and the fabrication of Ag nanosquare arrays with the use of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and leaf extracts were successfully carried out using the DC sputtering and spin coating deposition methods. Ag thin films [...] Read more.
The development of silver (Ag) thin films and the fabrication of Ag nanosquare arrays with the use of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and leaf extracts were successfully carried out using the DC sputtering and spin coating deposition methods. Ag thin films and Ag nanosquare arrays are developed to monitor cancer prognosis due to the correlation between serum albumin levels and prognostic factors, as well as the binding of serum albumin to the surface of these electrodes. Nanosquare structures were fabricated using AAO templates with varying diameters and a gap distance between adjacent unit cells of 100 nm. The nanosquare array with a diameter of 250 nm and irradiated with electromagnetic waves with a wavelength of around 800 nm possessed the greatest electric field distribution compared to the other variations of diameters and wavelengths. The results of the absorption measurement and simulation showed a greater shift in absorption peak wavelength when carried out using the Ag nanosquare array. The absorption peak wavelengths of the Ag nanosquare array in normal blood and blood with cancer lymphocytes were 700–774 nm and 800–850 nm, respectively. The electrochemical test showed that the sensitivity values of the Ag thin-film electrode deposited using DC sputtering, the Ag thin-film electrode deposited using spin coating, and the Ag nanosquare array in detecting PBS+BSA concentration in the cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiment were 1.308 µA mM−1cm−2, 0.022 µA mM−1cm−2, and 39.917 µA mM−1cm−2, respectively. Meanwhile, the sensitivity values of the Ag thin film and the Ag nanosquare array in detecting the PBS+BSA concentration in the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement were 6593.76 Ohm·cm2/mM and 69,000 Ohm·cm2/mM, respectively. Thus, our analysis of the optical and electrochemical characteristics of Ag thin films and Ag nanosquare arrays showed that both can be used as an alternative biomedical technology to monitor the prognosis of blood cancer based on the concentration of serum albumin in blood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next-Generation Nanomaterials: Preparation and Applications)
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Review

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26 pages, 1820 KiB  
Review
Graphene-Related Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications
by Andreea-Isabela Lazăr, Kimia Aghasoleimani, Anna Semertsidou, Jahnavi Vyas, Alin-Lucian Roșca, Denisa Ficai and Anton Ficai
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(6), 1092; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13061092 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3792
Abstract
This paper builds on the context and recent progress on the control, reproducibility, and limitations of using graphene and graphene-related materials (GRMs) in biomedical applications. The review describes the human hazard assessment of GRMs in in vitro and in vivo studies, highlights the [...] Read more.
This paper builds on the context and recent progress on the control, reproducibility, and limitations of using graphene and graphene-related materials (GRMs) in biomedical applications. The review describes the human hazard assessment of GRMs in in vitro and in vivo studies, highlights the composition–structure–activity relationships that cause toxicity for these substances, and identifies the key parameters that determine the activation of their biological effects. GRMs are designed to offer the advantage of facilitating unique biomedical applications that impact different techniques in medicine, especially in neuroscience. Due to the increasing utilization of GRMs, there is a need to comprehensively assess the potential impact of these materials on human health. Various outcomes associated with GRMs, including biocompatibility, biodegradability, beneficial effects on cell proliferation, differentiation rates, apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, oxidative stress, physical destruction, DNA damage, and inflammatory responses, have led to an increasing interest in these regenerative nanostructured materials. Considering the existence of graphene-related nanomaterials with different physicochemical properties, the materials are expected to exhibit unique modes of interactions with biomolecules, cells, and tissues depending on their size, chemical composition, and hydrophil-to-hydrophobe ratio. Understanding such interactions is crucial from two perspectives, namely, from the perspectives of their toxicity and biological uses. The main aim of this study is to assess and tune the diverse properties that must be considered when planning biomedical applications. These properties include flexibility, transparency, surface chemistry (hydrophil–hydrophobe ratio), thermoelectrical conductibility, loading and release capacity, and biocompatibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next-Generation Nanomaterials: Preparation and Applications)
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18 pages, 3235 KiB  
Review
Grape Waste Materials—An Attractive Source for Developing Nanomaterials with Versatile Applications
by Anda Maria Baroi, Elwira Sieniawska, Łukasz Świątek and Irina Fierascu
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(5), 836; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13050836 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2416
Abstract
In the last decade, researchers have focused on the recycling of agro-food wastes for the production of value-added products. This eco-friendly trend is also observed in nanotechnology, where recycled raw materials may be processed into valuable nanomaterials with practical applications. Regarding environmental safety, [...] Read more.
In the last decade, researchers have focused on the recycling of agro-food wastes for the production of value-added products. This eco-friendly trend is also observed in nanotechnology, where recycled raw materials may be processed into valuable nanomaterials with practical applications. Regarding environmental safety, replacing hazardous chemical substances with natural products obtained from plant wastes is an excellent opportunity for the “green synthesis” of nanomaterials. This paper aims to critically discuss plant waste, with particular emphasis on grape waste, methods of recovery of active compounds, and nanomaterials obtained from by-products, along with their versatile applications, including healthcare uses. Moreover, the challenges that may appear in this field, as well as future perspectives, are also included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next-Generation Nanomaterials: Preparation and Applications)
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19 pages, 711 KiB  
Review
Incorporation of Nanomaterials in Glass Ionomer Cements—Recent Developments and Future Perspectives: A Narrative Review
by Radu Claudiu Fierascu
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(21), 3827; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12213827 - 29 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3004
Abstract
Glass ionomer cements (GICs), restorative materials with commercial availability spanning over five decades, are widely applied due to their advantages (including bio-compatibility, fluoride release, or excellent bonding properties). However, GICs have shortcomings. Among the disadvantages limiting the application of GICs, the poor mechanical [...] Read more.
Glass ionomer cements (GICs), restorative materials with commercial availability spanning over five decades, are widely applied due to their advantages (including bio-compatibility, fluoride release, or excellent bonding properties). However, GICs have shortcomings. Among the disadvantages limiting the application of GICs, the poor mechanical properties are the most significant. In order to enhance the mechanical or antimicrobial properties of these materials, the addition of nanomaterials represents a viable approach. The present paper aims to review the literature on the application of different types of nanomaterials for the enhancement of GICs’ mechanical and antimicrobial properties, which could lead to several clinical benefits, including better physical properties and the prevention of tooth decay. After applying the described methodology, representative articles published in the time period 2011-present were selected and included in the final review, covering the modification of GICs with metallic nanoparticles (Cu, Ag), metallic and metalloid oxide nanoparticles (TiO2, ZnO, MgO, Al2O3, ZrO2, SiO2), apatitic nanomaterials, and other nanomaterials or multi-component nanocomposites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next-Generation Nanomaterials: Preparation and Applications)
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19 pages, 1867 KiB  
Review
Recent Developments in the Application of Inorganic Nanomaterials and Nanosystems for the Protection of Cultural Heritage Organic Artifacts
by Toma Fistos, Irina Fierascu and Radu Claudiu Fierascu
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(2), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12020207 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3133
Abstract
Cultural heritage (CH) represents human identity and evidence of the existence and activities that people have left over time. In response to the action of aggressive degrading factors, different materials have been developed and used to protect cultural heritage artifacts. The discovery of [...] Read more.
Cultural heritage (CH) represents human identity and evidence of the existence and activities that people have left over time. In response to the action of aggressive degrading factors, different materials have been developed and used to protect cultural heritage artifacts. The discovery of optimal materials for this purpose also raises several problems, mainly related to their compatibility with the support material, the most important aspect being that they must preserve their aesthetic characteristics. In this context, the present review paper aims to provide a critical discussion about the possibilities of using different inorganic nanomaterials and recipes for the conservation of cultural heritage objects of organic nature (such as paper, wood, and other support materials). In addition, also are covered different aspect concerning protection mechanisms and application methods as well as future perspectives in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next-Generation Nanomaterials: Preparation and Applications)
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54 pages, 7560 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Layered Double Hydroxide-Based Electrochemical and Optical Sensors
by Andrew Kim, Imre Varga, Arindam Adhikari and Rajkumar Patel
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 2809; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11112809 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4913
Abstract
Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have attracted considerable attention as promising materials for electrochemical and optical sensors owing to their excellent catalytic properties, facile synthesis strategies, highly tunable morphology, and versatile hosting ability. LDH-based electrochemical sensors are affordable alternatives to traditional precious-metal-based sensors, as [...] Read more.
Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have attracted considerable attention as promising materials for electrochemical and optical sensors owing to their excellent catalytic properties, facile synthesis strategies, highly tunable morphology, and versatile hosting ability. LDH-based electrochemical sensors are affordable alternatives to traditional precious-metal-based sensors, as LDHs can be synthesized from abundant inorganic precursors. LDH-modified probes can directly catalyze or host catalytic compounds that facilitate analyte redox reactions, detected as changes in the probe’s current, voltage, or resistance. The porous and lamellar structure of LDHs allows rapid analyte diffusion and abundant active sites for enhanced sensor sensitivity. LDHs can be composed of conductive materials such as reduced graphene oxide (rGO) or metal nanoparticles for improved catalytic activity and analyte selectivity. As optical sensors, LDHs provide a spacious, stable structure for synergistic guest–host interactions. LDHs can immobilize fluorophores, chemiluminescence reactants, and other spectroscopically active materials to reduce the aggregation and dissolution of the embedded sensor molecules, yielding enhanced optical responses and increased probe reusability. This review discusses standard LDH synthesis methods and overviews the different electrochemical and optical analysis techniques. Furthermore, the designs and modifications of exemplary LDHs and LDH composite materials are analyzed, focusing on the analytical performance of LDH-based sensors for key biomarkers and pollutants, including glucose, dopamine (DA), H2O2, metal ions, nitrogen-based toxins, and other organic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next-Generation Nanomaterials: Preparation and Applications)
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