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Recent Advances in Immunosensors and Biosensors

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2022) | Viewed by 15607

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
National Institute for Research and Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry – ICECHIM Bucharest
Interests: analytical chemistry; biochemistry; enzymology; biosensors; immunosensors; electrochemistry; screen printed electrodes; enzyme immobilization; electropolymerization; chemiluminescence; surface plasmon resonance; flow injection analysis; microfluidics; mycotoxins
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Institute for Research and Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry – ICECHIM Bucharest
Interests: analytical chemistry; biosensors; immunosensors; aptamers; dehydrogenases; electrochemistry; screen printed electrodes; surface plasmon resonance; endocrine disruptors; mycotoxins

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The field of immunosensors and biosensors is experiencing a continuous expansion, starting with the new biological recognition molecules, such as aptamers, and continuing with novel methods for their immobilization and with the impressive diversification of the detection mode and transducer types.

This Special Issue is focused mainly on the latest immunosensor concepts with all kinds of sensing systems, such as screen printed electrodes, optical fibers, SPR platforms, semiconductors, quartz crystals, etc.

Immunosensors and biosensors with dual detection platforms (optical–electrochemical, SPR–electrochemical, chemiluminescence–electrochemical, etc.), as well as flow injection/microfluidics-based ones, are very much encouraged. New immunosensors and biosensors with emerging applications for heath, food processing and quality, industrial processes, and environment and pollution monitoring are also of great interest for analysts.

Dr. Mihaela Badea Doni
Dr. Ana-Maria Gurban
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Immunosensors
  • Biosensors
  • Antibody
  • Aptamer
  • Surface plasmon resonance
  • Electro/chemiluminescence
  • Electrochemical
  • Disposable sensors
  • Dual detection platforms
  • Microfluidics

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 2950 KiB  
Article
Meander Thin-Film Biosensor Fabrication to Investigate the Influence of Structural Parameters on the Magneto-Impedance Effect
by Abkar Sayad, Shah Mukim Uddin, Jianxiong Chan, Efstratios Skafidas and Patrick Kwan
Sensors 2021, 21(19), 6514; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21196514 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2117
Abstract
Thin-film magneto-impedance (MI) biosensors have attracted significant attention due to their high sensitivity and easy miniaturization. However, further improvement is required to detect weak biomagnetic signals. Here, we report a meander thin-film biosensor preparation to investigate the fabrication parameters influencing the MI effect. [...] Read more.
Thin-film magneto-impedance (MI) biosensors have attracted significant attention due to their high sensitivity and easy miniaturization. However, further improvement is required to detect weak biomagnetic signals. Here, we report a meander thin-film biosensor preparation to investigate the fabrication parameters influencing the MI effect. Specifically, we hypothesized that an optimal film thickness and sensing area size ratio could be achieved to obtain a maximum MI ratio. A meander multilayer MI biosensor based on a NiFe/Cu/NiFe thin-film was designed and fabricated into 3-, 6-, and 9-turn models with film thicknesses of 3 µm and 6 µm. The 9-turn biosensor resembled the largest sensing area, while the 3- and 6-turn biosensors were designed with identical sensing areas. The results indicated that the NiFe film thickness of 6 µm with a sensing area size of 14.4 mm2 resembling a 9-turn MI biosensor is the optimal ratio yielding the maximum MI ratio of 238%, which is 70% larger than the 3- and 6-turn structures. The 3- and 6-turn MI biosensors exhibited similar characteristics where the MI ratio peaked at a similar value. Our results suggest that the MI ratio can be increased by increasing the sensing area size and film thickness rather than the number of turns. We showed that an optimal film thickness to sensing area size ratio is required to obtain a high MI ratio. Our findings will be useful for designing highly sensitive MI biosensors capable of detecting low biomagnetic signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Immunosensors and Biosensors)
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8 pages, 1318 KiB  
Communication
Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Sensor for Diagnosis of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) by Measuring Ketone Bodies in Urine
by Anna Go, Sung Ryul Park, Yejin Ku, Mingge Sun, Sangho Yeon, Jin-Kyun Lee, Sang Wook Lee and Min-Ho Lee
Sensors 2021, 21(14), 4902; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21144902 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3086
Abstract
In this report, we present an enzyme deposited Au electrode for an electrochemical measurement of acetylacetic acid (AcAc) in urine. The electrode has an immobilized layer of a mixture of D-β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) as sensing material to investigate [...] Read more.
In this report, we present an enzyme deposited Au electrode for an electrochemical measurement of acetylacetic acid (AcAc) in urine. The electrode has an immobilized layer of a mixture of D-β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) as sensing material to investigate its electroanalytical properties by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV). The modified electrodes are used for the detection of AcAc and present a linear current increase when the AcAc concentration increases. The electrode presents a limit of detection (LOD) of 6.25 mg/dL in the range of 6.25–100 mg/dL for investigation of clinical relevance. Finally, the electrode was evaluated using 20 patient samples. The measured results of urine ketone by the developed electrode were compared with the clinical results from a commercial kit, and the analysis showed good agreement. The proposed electrode was demonstrated to be a very promising platform as a miniaturized electrochemical analyzer for point-of-care monitoring of the critical biochemical parameters such as urine ketone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Immunosensors and Biosensors)
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17 pages, 6834 KiB  
Article
Immobilized Antibodies on Mercaptophenylboronic Acid Monolayers for Dual-Strategy Detection of 20S Proteasome
by Madalina M. Barsan, Caroline G. Sanz, Melania Onea and Victor C. Diculescu
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2702; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082702 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2086
Abstract
A dual strategy for the electrochemical detection for 20S proteasome (20S) is proposed, based on the oriented immobilization of a capture monoclonal antibody (Abβ) on a self-assembled monolayer of 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MPBA) on gold electrodes, which led to the Au/4-MPBA/Abβ immunosensor. The methodology [...] Read more.
A dual strategy for the electrochemical detection for 20S proteasome (20S) is proposed, based on the oriented immobilization of a capture monoclonal antibody (Abβ) on a self-assembled monolayer of 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MPBA) on gold electrodes, which led to the Au/4-MPBA/Abβ immunosensor. The methodology comprises the correlation of 20S concentration with (i) its proteolytic activity toward the Z-LLE-AMC substrate, using the Au/4-MPBA/Abβ/20S, and (ii) the enzymatic activity of an alkaline phosphatase (AlkP) from the AlkP-labeled secondary antibody (Abcore-AlkP), which involves the conversion of aminophenylphosphate to the electroactive aminophenol using Au/4-MPBA/Abβ/20S/Abcore-AlkP. The step-by-step construction of the immunosensor and the interactions at its surface were evaluated by surface plasmon resonance and gravimetric analysis with quartz crystal microbalance, showing a high affinity between both antibodies and 20S. Morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy demonstrated a pattern of parallel lines upon immobilization of Abβ on 4-MPBA and morphological changes to a well-organized granular structure upon binding of 20S. A voltametric and impedimetric characterization was performed after each step in the immunosensor construction. The two detection strategies were evaluated. It was shown that the immunosensor responds linearly with 20S concentration in the range between 5 and 100 µg mL−1, which corresponds to proteasome levels in serum in the case of diverse pathological situations, and LoD values of 1.4 and 0.2 µg mL−1 were calculated for the detection strategies. The immunosensor was applied to the detection of 20S in serum samples with recovery values ranging from 101 to 103%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Immunosensors and Biosensors)
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18 pages, 2384 KiB  
Article
Rapid Detection of Salmonella typhimurium in Drinking Water by a White Light Reflectance Spectroscopy Immunosensor
by Michailia Angelopoulou, Konstantina Tzialla, Angeliki Voulgari, Mary Dikeoulia, Ioannis Raptis, Sotirios Elias Kakabakos and Panagiota Petrou
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2683; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082683 - 10 Apr 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3367
Abstract
Biosensors represent an attractive approach for fast bacteria detection. Here, we present an optical biosensor for the detection of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Salmonella bacteria in drinking water, based on white light reflectance spectroscopy. The sensor chip consisted of a Si die [...] Read more.
Biosensors represent an attractive approach for fast bacteria detection. Here, we present an optical biosensor for the detection of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Salmonella bacteria in drinking water, based on white light reflectance spectroscopy. The sensor chip consisted of a Si die with a thin SiO2 layer on top that was transformed into a biosensor through the immobilization of Salmonella LPS. The optical setup included a reflection probe with seven 200 μm fibers, a visible and near-infrared light source, and a spectrometer. The six fibers at the reflection probe circumference were coupled with the light source and illuminated the biosensor chip vertically, whereas the central fiber collected the reflected light and guided it to the spectrometer. A competitive immunoassay configuration was adopted for the analysis. Accordingly, a mixture of LPS or bacteria solution, pre-incubated for 15 min, with an anti-Salmonella LPS antibody was pumped over the chip followed by biotinylated secondary antibody and streptavidin for signal enhancement. The binding of the free anti-Salmonella antibody to chip-immobilized LPS led to a shift of the reflectance spectrum that was inversely related to the analyte concentration (LPS or bacteria) in the calibrators or samples. The total assay duration was 15 min, and the detection limits achieved were 4 ng/mL for LPS and 320 CFU/mL for bacteria. Taking into account the low detection limits, the short analysis time, and the small size of the chip and instrumentation employed, the proposed immunosensor could find wide application for bacteria detection in drinking water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Immunosensors and Biosensors)
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16 pages, 2405 KiB  
Article
Lateral Flow Serodiagnosis in the Double-Antigen Sandwich Format: Theoretical Consideration and Confirmation of Advantages
by Dmitriy V. Sotnikov, Anatoly V. Zherdev and Boris B. Dzantiev
Sensors 2021, 21(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010039 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3461
Abstract
Determination of the presence in the blood of antibodies specific to the causative agent of a particular disease (serodiagnosis) is an effective approach in medical analytical chemistry. Serodiagnostics performed in the lateral flow immunoassay format (immunochromatography) meet the modern requirements for point-of-care testing [...] Read more.
Determination of the presence in the blood of antibodies specific to the causative agent of a particular disease (serodiagnosis) is an effective approach in medical analytical chemistry. Serodiagnostics performed in the lateral flow immunoassay format (immunochromatography) meet the modern requirements for point-of-care testing and are supported by existing technologies of large-scale diagnostic tests production, thus increasing the amount of attention in a tense epidemiological situation. For traditional lateral flow serodiagnostics formats, a large number of nonspecific immunoglobulins in the sample significantly reduces the degree of detectable binding. To overcome these limitations, an assay based on the formation of immobilized antigen-specific antibody-labeled antigen complexes detection was proposed. However, the requirements for its implementation, providing maximum sensitivity, have not been established. This article describes the mathematical model for the above assay. The influence of the ratio of reagent concentrations on the analysis results is considered. It is noted that the formation of specific antibody complexes with several labeled antigens is the main limiting factor in reducing the detection limit, and methods are proposed to minimize this factor. Recommendations for the choice of the assay conditions, following from the analysis of the model, are confirmed experimentally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Immunosensors and Biosensors)
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