Nanoscale Ferroic Materials—Ferroelectric, Piezoelectric, Magnetic, and Multiferroic Materials

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanocomposite Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 31860

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Guest Editor
Institute for SupeInstitute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia
Interests: condensed matter physics; theory and design of materials; ferroelectric/dielectric/piezoelecitric/multiferroic materials and their applications, nanomaterials

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Guest Editor
School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan, China
Interests: piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials, including composition design, preparation, electric properties, and their applications in sensors/transducers

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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Dielectric Functional Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, China
Interests: dielectrics; ferroelectrics; physics; materials and their applications
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ferroic materials, including ferroelectric, dielectric, piezoelectric, magnetic, and multiferroic materials, have broad applications in current modern society. Based on their rich physics and the related properties, ferroic materials can have applications for different purposes. For example, based on the switching of domain, ferroelectric and magnetic materials can be used for information storage. Based on the piezoelectric property, piezoelectric materials can be used as sensor/actuator/energy harvesters. Based on the coupling of magnetic order and ferroelectric order, multiferroic materials can have applications as magnetic field sensors and for information storage with the advantages of high storage density and low power consumption. Recently, nanoferroic materials have found new applications based on their ferroic property (low dimension limited size effect) and high surface area—for example, catalysis for water splitting, organics degradation, and CO2 reduction.

Obviously, ferroic materials have shown their great advantages in terms of applications in modern society and are going to find more novel applications in the future. This Special Issue on “Nanoscale Ferroelectric, Piezoelectric, and Multiferroic Materials” aims at collecting the most recent advances on nanoscale ferroic materials and their novel applications in different fields of interest. For this reason, this Special Issue will include a large variety of materials and related applications, such as ferroic nanostructures and materials, including ferroelectric, dielectric, piezoelectric, magnetic, and multiferroic nanomaterials (oxide materials, two-dimensional materials, alloys), their applications in energy harvesting, sensing, catalysis, information storage, etc. Papers on a fundamental understanding of the novel properties demonstrated by nanoscale ferroic materials are also welcome.

The submission of regular articles and review papers on the above electronic materials and related devices is welcome.

Prof. Dr. Zhenxiang Cheng
Prof. Dr. Changhong Yang
Prof. Dr. Chunchang Wang
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Dielectric film
  • Energy storage
  • Multiferroics
  • Ferroelectrics
  • Piezoelectrics
  • Energy harvesting and storage
  • Piezoelectric and ferroelectric catalysts
  • Sensors

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 182 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for the Special Issue “Nanoscale Ferroic Materials—Ferroelectric, Piezoelectric, Magnetic, and Multiferroic Materials”
by Changhong Yang, Chunchang Wang and Zhenxiang Cheng
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(17), 2951; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12172951 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
Ferroic materials, including ferroelectric, piezoelectric, magnetic, and multiferroic materials, are receiving great scientific attentions due to their rich physical properties [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

16 pages, 5593 KiB  
Article
Presence of Induced Weak Ferromagnetism in Fe-Substituted YFexCr1−xO3 Crystalline Compounds
by Roberto Salazar-Rodriguez, Domingo Aliaga Guerra, Jean-Marc Greneche, Keith M. Taddei, Noemi-Raquel Checca-Huaman, Edson C. Passamani and Juan A. Ramos-Guivar
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(19), 3516; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12193516 - 8 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1671
Abstract
Fe-substituted YFexCr1−xO3 crystalline compounds show promising magnetic and multiferroic properties. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of several compositions from this series. Using the autocombustion route, various compositions (x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.6, 0.75, 0.9, and 1) [...] Read more.
Fe-substituted YFexCr1−xO3 crystalline compounds show promising magnetic and multiferroic properties. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of several compositions from this series. Using the autocombustion route, various compositions (x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.6, 0.75, 0.9, and 1) were synthesized as high-quality crystalline powders. In order to obtain microscopic and atomic information about their structure and magnetism, characterization was performed using room temperature X-ray diffraction and energy dispersion analysis as well as temperature-dependent neutron diffraction, magnetometry, and 57Fe Mössbauer spectrometry. Rietveld analysis of the diffraction data revealed a crystallite size of 84 (8) nm for YFeO3, while energy dispersion analysis indicated compositions close to the nominal compositions. The magnetic results suggested an enhancement of the weak ferromagnetism for the YFeO3 phase due to two contributions. First, a high magnetocrystalline anisotropy was associated with the crystalline character that favored a unique high canting angle of the antiferromagnetic phase (13°), as indicated by the neutron diffraction analysis. This was also evidenced by the high magnetic hysteresis curves up to 90 kOe by a remarkable high critical coercivity value of 46.7 kOe at room temperature. Second, the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interactions between homogenous and heterogeneous magnetic pairs resulted from the inhomogeneous distribution of Fe3+ and Cr3+ ions, as indicated by 57Fe Mössbauer studies. Together, these results point to new methods of controlling the magnetic properties of these materials. Full article
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11 pages, 2412 KiB  
Article
High-Magnetic-Sensitivity Magnetoelectric Coupling Origins in a Combination of Anisotropy and Exchange Striction
by Zhuo Zeng, Xiong He, Yujie Song, Haoyu Niu, Dequan Jiang, Xiaoxing Zhang, Meng Wei, Youyuan Liang, Hao Huang, Zhongwen Ouyang, Zhenxiang Cheng and Zhengcai Xia
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(18), 3092; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12183092 - 6 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1663
Abstract
Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling is highly desirable for sensors and memory devices. Herein, the polarization (P) and magnetization (M) of the DyFeO3 single crystal were measured in pulsed magnetic fields, in which the ME behavior is modulated by multi-magnetic [...] Read more.
Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling is highly desirable for sensors and memory devices. Herein, the polarization (P) and magnetization (M) of the DyFeO3 single crystal were measured in pulsed magnetic fields, in which the ME behavior is modulated by multi-magnetic order parameters and has high magnetic-field sensitivity. Below the ordering temperature of the Dy3+-sublattice, when the magnetic field is along the c-axis, the P (corresponding to a large critical field of 3 T) is generated due to the exchange striction mechanism. Interestingly, when the magnetic field is in the ab-plane, ME coupling with smaller critical fields of 0.8 T (a-axis) and 0.5 T (b-axis) is triggered. We assume that the high magnetic-field sensitivity results from the combination of the magnetic anisotropy of the Dy3+ spin and the exchange striction between the Fe3+ and Dy3+ spins. This work may help to search for single-phase multiferroic materials with high magnetic-field sensitivity. Full article
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10 pages, 3465 KiB  
Article
Ferroelectricity and Piezoelectricity in 2D Van der Waals CuInP2S6 Ferroelectric Tunnel Junctions
by Tingting Jia, Yanrong Chen, Yali Cai, Wenbin Dai, Chong Zhang, Liang Yu, Wenfeng Yue, Hideo Kimura, Yingbang Yao, Shuhui Yu, Quansheng Guo and Zhenxiang Cheng
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(15), 2516; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12152516 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3375
Abstract
CuInP2S6 (CIPS) is a novel two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) ferroelectric layered material with a Curie temperature of TC~315 K, making it promising for great potential applications in electronic and photoelectric devices. Herein, the ferroelectric and electric properties of CIPS [...] Read more.
CuInP2S6 (CIPS) is a novel two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) ferroelectric layered material with a Curie temperature of TC~315 K, making it promising for great potential applications in electronic and photoelectric devices. Herein, the ferroelectric and electric properties of CIPS at different thicknesses are carefully evaluated by scanning probe microscopy techniques. Some defects in some local regions due to Cu deficiency lead to a CuInP2S6–In4/3P2S6 (CIPS–IPS) paraelectric phase coexisting with the CIPS ferroelectric phase. An electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM) study reveals that the relaxation times corresponding to the Cu ions and the IPS ionospheres are not the same, with a significant difference in their response to DC voltage, related to the rectification effect of the ferroelectric tunnel junction (FTJ). The electric properties of the FTJ indicate Cu+ ion migration and propose that the current flow and device performance are dynamically controlled by an interfacial Schottky barrier. The addition of the ferroelectricity of CIPS opens up applications in memories and sensors, actuators, and even spin-orbit devices based on 2D vdW heterostructures. Full article
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11 pages, 3486 KiB  
Article
Magnonic Metamaterials for Spin-Wave Control with Inhomogeneous Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya Interactions
by Fengjun Zhuo, Hang Li, Zhenxiang Cheng and Aurélien Manchon
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(7), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12071159 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2099
Abstract
A magnonic metamaterial in the presence of spatially modulated Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction is theoretically proposed and demonstrated by micromagnetic simulations. By analogy to the fields of photonics, we first establish magnonic Snell’s law for spin waves passing through an interface between two media with [...] Read more.
A magnonic metamaterial in the presence of spatially modulated Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction is theoretically proposed and demonstrated by micromagnetic simulations. By analogy to the fields of photonics, we first establish magnonic Snell’s law for spin waves passing through an interface between two media with different dispersion relations due to different Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interactions. Based on magnonic Snell’s law, we find that spin waves can experience total internal reflection. The critical angle of total internal reflection is strongly dependent on the sign and strength of Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction. Furthermore, spin-wave beam fiber and spin-wave lens are designed by utilizing the artificial magnonic metamaterials with inhomogeneous Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interactions. Our findings open up a rich field of spin waves manipulation for prospective applications in magnonics. Full article
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13 pages, 4151 KiB  
Article
Excellent Energy Storage Performance in Bi(Fe0.93Mn0.05Ti0.02)O3 Modified CaBi4Ti4O15 Thin Film by Adjusting Annealing Temperature
by Tong Liu, Wenwen Wang, Jin Qian, Qiqi Li, Mengjia Fan, Changhong Yang, Shifeng Huang and Lingchao Lu
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(5), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12050730 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1943
Abstract
Dielectric capacitors with ultrahigh power density are highly desired in modern electrical and electronic systems. However, their comprehensive performances still need to be further improved for application, such as recoverable energy storage density, efficiency and temperature stability. In this work, new lead-free bismuth [...] Read more.
Dielectric capacitors with ultrahigh power density are highly desired in modern electrical and electronic systems. However, their comprehensive performances still need to be further improved for application, such as recoverable energy storage density, efficiency and temperature stability. In this work, new lead-free bismuth layer-structured ferroelectric thin films of CaBi4Ti4O15-Bi(Fe0.93Mn0.05Ti0.02)O3 (CBTi-BFO) were prepared via chemical solution deposition. The CBTi-BFO film has a small crystallization temperature window and exhibits a polycrystalline bismuth layered structure with no secondary phases at annealing temperatures of 500–550 °C. The effects of annealing temperature on the energy storage performances of a series of thin films were investigated. The lower the annealing temperature of CBTi-BFO, the smaller the carrier concentration and the fewer defects, resulting in a higher intrinsic breakdown field strength of the corresponding film. Especially, the CBTi-BFO film annealed at 500 °C shows a high recoverable energy density of 82.8 J·cm−3 and efficiency of 78.3%, which can be attributed to the very slim hysteresis loop and a relatively high electric breakdown strength. Meanwhile, the optimized CBTi-BFO film capacitor exhibits superior fatigue endurance after 107 charge–discharge cycles, a preeminent thermal stability up to 200 °C, and an outstanding frequency stability in the range of 500 Hz–20 kHz. All these excellent performances indicate that the CBTi-BFO film can be used in high energy density storage applications. Full article
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14 pages, 5476 KiB  
Article
Effect of Process Temperature on Density and Electrical Characteristics of Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 Thin Films Prepared by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition
by Hak-Gyeong Kim, Da-Hee Hong, Jae-Hoon Yoo and Hee-Chul Lee
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(3), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030548 - 5 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2576
Abstract
HfxZr1−xO2 (HZO) thin films have excellent potential for application in various devices, including ferroelectric transistors and semiconductor memories. However, such applications are hindered by the low remanent polarization (Pr) and fatigue endurance of these films. [...] Read more.
HfxZr1−xO2 (HZO) thin films have excellent potential for application in various devices, including ferroelectric transistors and semiconductor memories. However, such applications are hindered by the low remanent polarization (Pr) and fatigue endurance of these films. To overcome these limitations, in this study, HZO thin films were fabricated via plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), and the effects of the deposition and post-annealing temperatures on the density, crystallinity, and electrical properties of the thin films were analyzed. The thin films obtained via PEALD were characterized using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis. An HZO thin film deposited at 180 °C exhibited the highest o-phase proportion as well as the highest density. By contrast, mixed secondary phases were observed in a thin film deposited at 280 °C. Furthermore, a post-annealing temperature of 600 °C yielded the highest thin film density, and the highest 2Pr value and fatigue endurance were obtained for the film deposited at 180 °C and post-annealed at 600 °C. In addition, we developed three different methods to further enhance the density of the films. Consequently, an enhanced maximum density and exceptional fatigue endurance of 2.5 × 107 cycles were obtained. Full article
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10 pages, 43315 KiB  
Article
Humidity Sensitivity Behavior of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite
by Xuefeng Zhao, Yuting Sun, Shuyu Liu, Gaifang Chen, Pengfei Chen, Jinsong Wang, Wenjun Cao and Chunchang Wang
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(3), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030523 - 2 Feb 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2147
Abstract
The CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) powders were ground by PbI2 and CH3NH3I prepared by ice bath method. The humidity sensitive properties of an impedance-type sensor based on MAPbI3 materials were systematically studied. [...] Read more.
The CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) powders were ground by PbI2 and CH3NH3I prepared by ice bath method. The humidity sensitive properties of an impedance-type sensor based on MAPbI3 materials were systematically studied. Our results indicate that the MAPbI3-based sensor has superior sensing behaviors, including high sensitivity of 5808, low hysteresis, approximately 6.76%, as well as good stability. Water-molecule-induced enhancement of the conductive carrier concentration was argued to be responsible for the excellent humidity sensitive properties. Interestingly, the humidity properties can be affected by red light sources. The photogenerated carriers broke the original balance and decreased the impedance of the sensor. This work promotes the development of perovskite materials in the field of humidity sensing. Full article
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11 pages, 3592 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Piezo-Photocatalysis of BiOCl/NaNbO3 Heterojunction Piezoelectric Composite for High-Efficient Organic Pollutant Degradation
by Li Li, Wenjun Cao, Jiahao Yao, Wei Liu, Feng Li and Chunchang Wang
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(3), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030353 - 22 Jan 2022
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 4128
Abstract
Piezo-photocatalytic technique is a new-emerging strategy to alleviate photoinduced charge recombination and thus enhance catalytic performance. The heterojunction construction engineering is a powerful approach to improve photocatalytic performance. Herein, the BiOCl/NaNbO3 with different molar ratios piezoelectric composites were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal [...] Read more.
Piezo-photocatalytic technique is a new-emerging strategy to alleviate photoinduced charge recombination and thus enhance catalytic performance. The heterojunction construction engineering is a powerful approach to improve photocatalytic performance. Herein, the BiOCl/NaNbO3 with different molar ratios piezoelectric composites were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal methods. The piezo/photodegradation rate (k value) of Rhodamine B (RhB) for BiOCl/NaNbO3 (BN-3, 0.0192 min−1) is 2.2 and 5.2 times higher than that of BiOCl (0.0089 min−1) and NaNbO3 (0.0037 min−1), respectively. The enhanced performance of BN-3 composite can be attributed to the heterojunction construction between BiOCl and NaNbO3. In addition, the piezo/photodecomposition ratio of RhB for BN-3 (87.4%) is 8.8 and 2.2 times higher than that of piezocatalysis (9.9%) and photocatalysis (40.4%), respectively. We further investigated the mechanism of piezocatalysis, photocatalysis, and their synergy effect of BN-3 composite. This study favors an in-depth understanding of piezo-photocatalysis, providing a new strategy to improve the environmental pollutant remediation efficiency of piezoelectric composites. Full article
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14 pages, 3826 KiB  
Article
Phase Structure and Electrical Properties of Sm-Doped BiFe0.98Mn0.02O3 Thin Films
by Yangyang Wang, Zhaoyang Li, Zhibiao Ma, Lingxu Wang, Xiaodong Guo, Yan Liu, Bingdong Yao, Fengqing Zhang and Luyi Zhu
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12010108 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1696
Abstract
Bi1−xSmxFe0.98Mn0.02O3 (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06; named BSFMx) (BSFM) films were prepared by the sol-gel method on indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass substrate. The effects of different Sm content on the [...] Read more.
Bi1−xSmxFe0.98Mn0.02O3 (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06; named BSFMx) (BSFM) films were prepared by the sol-gel method on indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass substrate. The effects of different Sm content on the crystal structure, phase composition, oxygen vacancy content, ferroelectric property, dielectric property, leakage property, leakage mechanism, and aging property of the BSFM films were systematically analyzed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectral analyses revealed that the sample had both R3c and Pnma phases. Through additional XRD fitting of the films, the content of the two phases of the sample was analyzed in detail, and it was found that the Pnma phase in the BSFMx = 0 film had the lowest abundance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed that the BSFMx = 0.04 film had the lowest oxygen vacancy content, which was conducive to a decrease in leakage current density and an improvement in dielectric properties. The diffraction peak of (110) exhibited the maximum intensity when the doping amount was 4 mol%, and the minimum leakage current density and a large remanent polarization intensity were also observed at room temperature (2Pr = 91.859 μC/cm2). By doping Sm at an appropriate amount, the leakage property of the BSFM films was reduced, the dielectric property was improved, and the aging process was delayed. The performance changes in the BSFM films were further explained from different perspectives, such as phase composition and oxygen vacancy content. Full article
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15 pages, 4348 KiB  
Article
Interface Optimization and Transport Modulation of Sm2O3/InP Metal Oxide Semiconductor Capacitors with Atomic Layer Deposition-Derived Laminated Interlayer
by Jinyu Lu, Gang He, Jin Yan, Zhenxiang Dai, Ganhong Zheng, Shanshan Jiang, Lesheng Qiao, Qian Gao and Zebo Fang
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(12), 3443; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11123443 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2396
Abstract
In this paper, the effect of atomic layer deposition-derived laminated interlayer on the interface chemistry and transport characteristics of sputtering-deposited Sm2O3/InP gate stacks have been investigated systematically. Based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, it can be noted that [...] Read more.
In this paper, the effect of atomic layer deposition-derived laminated interlayer on the interface chemistry and transport characteristics of sputtering-deposited Sm2O3/InP gate stacks have been investigated systematically. Based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, it can be noted that ALD-derived Al2O3 interface passivation layer significantly prevents the appearance of substrate diffusion oxides and substantially optimizes gate dielectric performance. The leakage current experimental results confirm that the Sm2O3/Al2O3/InP stacked gate dielectric structure exhibits a lower leakage current density than the other samples, reaching a value of 2.87 × 10−6 A/cm2. In addition, conductivity analysis shows that high-quality metal oxide semiconductor capacitors based on Sm2O3/Al2O3/InP gate stacks have the lowest interfacial density of states (Dit) value of 1.05 × 1013 cm−2 eV−1. The conduction mechanisms of the InP-based MOS capacitors at low temperatures are not yet known, and to further explore the electron transport in InP-based MOS capacitors with different stacked gate dielectric structures, we placed samples for leakage current measurements at low varying temperatures (77–227 K). Based on the measurement results, Sm2O3/Al2O3/InP stacked gate dielectric is a promising candidate for InP-based metal oxide semiconductor field-effect-transistor devices (MOSFET) in the future. Full article
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11 pages, 4682 KiB  
Article
Flexible Lead-Free Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3/0.4BiFeO3-0.6SrTiO3 Dielectric Film Capacitor with High Energy Storage Performance
by Wenwen Wang, Jin Qian, Chaohui Geng, Mengjia Fan, Changhong Yang, Lingchao Lu and Zhenxiang Cheng
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 3065; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11113065 - 14 Nov 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2473
Abstract
Ferroelectric thin film capacitors have triggered great interest in pulsed power systems because of their high-power density and ultrafast charge–discharge speed, but less attention has been paid to the realization of flexible capacitors for wearable electronics and power systems. In this work, a [...] Read more.
Ferroelectric thin film capacitors have triggered great interest in pulsed power systems because of their high-power density and ultrafast charge–discharge speed, but less attention has been paid to the realization of flexible capacitors for wearable electronics and power systems. In this work, a flexible Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3/0.4BiFeO3-0.6SrTiO3 thin film capacitor is synthesized on mica substrate. It possesses an energy storage density of Wrec ~ 62 J cm−3, combined with an efficiency of η ~ 74% due to the moderate breakdown strength (3000 kV cm−1) and the strong relaxor behavior. The energy storage performances for the film capacitor are also very stable over a broad temperature range (−50–200 °C) and frequency range (500 Hz–20 kHz). Moreover, the Wrec and η are stabilized after 108 fatigue cycles. Additionally, the superior energy storage capability can be well maintained under a small bending radius (r = 2 mm), or after 104 mechanical bending cycles. These results reveal that the Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3/0.4BiFeO3-0.6SrTiO3 film capacitors in this work have great potential for use in flexible microenergy storage systems. Full article
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11 pages, 3986 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Ferroelectric, Dielectric Properties of Fe-Doped PMN-PT Thin Films
by Chao Feng, Tong Liu, Xinyu Bu and Shifeng Huang
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 3043; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11113043 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2137
Abstract
Fe-doped 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) thin films were grown in Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate by a chemical solution deposition method. Effects of the annealing temperature and doping concentration on the crystallinity, microstructure, ferroelectric and dielectric properties of thin [...] Read more.
Fe-doped 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) thin films were grown in Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate by a chemical solution deposition method. Effects of the annealing temperature and doping concentration on the crystallinity, microstructure, ferroelectric and dielectric properties of thin film were investigated. High (111) preferred orientation and density columnar structure were achieved in the 2% Fe-doped PMN-PT thin film annealed at 650 °C. The preferred orientation was transferred to a random orientation as the doping concentration increased. A 2% Fe-doped PMN-PT thin film showed the effectively reduced leakage current density, which was due to the fact that the oxygen vacancies were effectively restricted and a transition of Ti4+ to Ti3+ was prevented. The optimal ferroelectric properties of 2% Fe-doped PMN-PT thin film annealed at 650 °C were identified with slim polarization-applied field loops, high saturation polarization (Ps = 78.8 µC/cm2), remanent polarization (Pr = 23.1 µC/cm2) and low coercive voltage (Ec = 100 kV/cm). Moreover, the 2% Fe-doped PMN-PT thin film annealed at 650 °C showed an excellent dielectric performance with a high dielectric constant (εr ~1300 at 1 kHz). Full article
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