Special Issue "Low Dimensional Materials for Environmental and Biomedical Applications"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 August 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Mauricio Terrones
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physics & Chemistry & Material Science Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, United States
Interests: Carbon-based materials; 2D materials; nanomaterials and characterizations
Dr. Yin-Ting Yeh
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physics & The Huck Institute of the Life Science & Material Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, United States
Interests: Biomedical engineering; microfabrication; infectious disease; material synthesis
Dr. Kazunori Fujisawa
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physics & Center for 2-Dimensional and Layered Materials, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, United States
Interests: Material characterization; Electron microscopy; 2D materials; carbon-based materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Low dimensional materials have unique anisotropy of material properties. Recent advancements of low dimensional materials studies have built a solid foundation of novel technologies. We invite researchers to submit their contributions in low dimensional materials with applications that focus on researches of environment and biomedical applications. Any format of articles is welcome, including full papers, communications, perspectives, and reviews. This special issue aims to cover the following potential topics but is not limited to:

1) Synthesis of low dimensional materials and preparations of their chemical or physical derivatives;

2) Characterizations of low dimensional materials;

3) Functionalizations and engineering approaches of low dimensional materials;

4) Demonstrations of bio-related applications;

5) Technology development for environmental sustainability, such as gas sensing, molecule detection and absorption, water purification, and energy.

Dr. Mauricio Terrones
Dr. Yin-Ting Yeh
Dr. Kazunori Fujisawa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Low dimensional material
  • material characterization
  • material synthesis
  • biomedical application
  • environmental sustainability

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Sulfur-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide for Enhanced Sodium Ion Pseudocapacitance
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050752 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Sodium-ion capacitors (NICs) are considered an important candidate for large-scale energy storage in virtue of their superior energy–power properties, as well as availability of rich Na+ reserves. To fabricate high-performance NIC electrode material, a hydrothermal method was proposed to synthesize sulfur-doped reduced [...] Read more.
Sodium-ion capacitors (NICs) are considered an important candidate for large-scale energy storage in virtue of their superior energy–power properties, as well as availability of rich Na+ reserves. To fabricate high-performance NIC electrode material, a hydrothermal method was proposed to synthesize sulfur-doped reduced graphene oxide (SG), which exhibited unique layered structures and showed excellent electrochemical properties with 116 F/g capacitance at 1 A/g as the cathode of NICs from 1.6 V to 4.2 V. At the power–energy density over 5000 W/kg, the SG demonstrated over 100 Wh/kg energy density after 3500 cycles, which indicated its efficient durability and superior power–energy properties. The addition of a sulfur source in the hydrothermal process led to the higher specific surface area and more abundant micropores of SG when compared with those of reduced graphene oxide (rGO), thus SG exhibited much better electrochemical properties than those shown by rGO. Partially substituting surface oxygen-containing groups of rGO with sulfur-containing groups also facilitated the enhanced sodium-ion storage ability of SG by introducing sufficient pseudocapacitance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multifunctional Superparamagnetic Stiff Nanoreservoirs for Blood Brain Barrier Applications
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030449 - 17 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Neurological diseases (Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and stroke) are becoming a major concern for health systems in developed countries due to the increment of ageing in the population, and many resources are devoted to the development of new therapies and contrast agents for [...] Read more.
Neurological diseases (Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and stroke) are becoming a major concern for health systems in developed countries due to the increment of ageing in the population, and many resources are devoted to the development of new therapies and contrast agents for selective imaging. However, the strong isolation of the brain by the brain blood barrier (BBB) prevents not only the crossing of pathogens, but also a large set of beneficial drugs. Therefore, an alternative strategy is arising based on the anchoring to vascular endothelial cells of nanoplatforms working as delivery reservoirs. In this work, novel injectable mesoporous nanorods, wrapped by a fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles envelope, are proposed as biocompatible reservoirs with an extremely high loading capacity, surface versatility, and optimal morphology for enhanced grafting to vessels during their diffusive flow. Wet chemistry techniques allow for the development of mesoporous silica nanostructures with tailored properties, such as a fluorescent response suitable for optical studies, superparamagnetic behavior for magnetic resonance imaging MRI contrast, and large range ordered porosity for controlled delivery. In this work, fluorescent magnetic mesoporous nanorods were physicochemical characterized and tested in preliminary biological in vitro and in vivo experiments, showing a transversal relaxivitiy of 324.68 mM−1 s−1, intense fluorescence, large specific surface area (300 m2 g−1), and biocompatibility for endothelial cells’ uptake up to 100 µg (in a 80% confluent 1.9 cm2 culture well), with no liver and kidney disability. These magnetic fluorescent nanostructures allow for multimodal MRI/optical imaging, the allocation of therapeutic moieties, and targeting of tissues with specific damage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Magnetic Nanostructured Beads for Cadmium(II) Removal
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030356 - 04 Mar 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
This study presents an effective magnetic separation method for cadmium removal, based on the use of a novel nanostructured material as an adsorbent. This adsorbent involves the incorporation of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs), synthesized by the reverse coprecipitation method, into [...] Read more.
This study presents an effective magnetic separation method for cadmium removal, based on the use of a novel nanostructured material as an adsorbent. This adsorbent involves the incorporation of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs), synthesized by the reverse coprecipitation method, into sodium alginate and activated carbon to form spherical structures by crosslinking Ca2+ ions with the charged alginate chains, referred to as magnetic alginate activated carbon (MAAC) beads. The effect of the experimental parameters, such as pH, contacting time, adsorbent dosage, agitation type, and rotating speed were investigated and optimized for an efficient removal of Cd(II) ions at an initial concentration of 250 mg/L. The amount of adsorbed Cd(II) by MAAC beads increased at a pH of 6 with a removal efficiency over 90%. The maximum adsorption capacity reached was 70 mg/g of adsorbent at an initial Cd(II) concentration of 150 mg/L, whereas at 250 mg/L the adsorption capacity lowered until 60 mg/g. Sorption isotherms were calculated using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin–Radushkevich equations, and were better described by the Freundlich and Temkin models. These results proved the removal efficiency and the potential use under real environmental conditions of the MAAC beads, due to their easy recovery from contaminated aqueous solutions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Removal of Tetracycline Pollutants by Adsorption and Magnetic Separation Using Reduced Graphene Oxide Decorated with α-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030313 - 26 Feb 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Nanocomposites of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with ferromagnetic α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles have been prepared in-situ by thermal treatment. The structure and morphology of the hybrid material were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The results [...] Read more.
Nanocomposites of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with ferromagnetic α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles have been prepared in-situ by thermal treatment. The structure and morphology of the hybrid material were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The results show a hybrid material highly modified with α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles distributed on the graphene surface. The adsorption kinetics show the presence of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles on the RGO surface, and the amount of remaining functional groups dominated by ionization and dispersion. The adsorption kinetics of this adsorbent was characterized and found to fit the pseudo-second-order model. The α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles on RGO modify the electrostatic interaction of RGO layers and tetracycline, and adsorption properties decreased in the hybrid material. Adsorption isotherms fit with the Langmuir model very well, and the maximum capacity adsorption was 44.23 mg/g for RGO and 18.47 mg/g for the hybrid material. Magnetic characterization of the hybrid material shows ferromagnetic behavior due to the nanosize of α-Fe2O3 with a saturation magnetization, Ms = 7.15 Am2/kg, a remanence Mr = 2.29 Am2/kg, and a coercive field, Hc = 0.02 T. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bi-Metal Phosphide NiCoP: An Enhanced Catalyst for the Reduction of 4-Nitrophenol
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010112 - 18 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Porous phosphide NixCoyP composite nanomaterials are successfully synthesized at different Ni/Co ratios (=0, 0.5, 1, and 2) to reduce 4-nitrophenol. The X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results demonstrate that the products are CoP, NiCoP/CoP, NiCoP, and NiCoP/Ni2 [...] Read more.
Porous phosphide NixCoyP composite nanomaterials are successfully synthesized at different Ni/Co ratios (=0, 0.5, 1, and 2) to reduce 4-nitrophenol. The X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results demonstrate that the products are CoP, NiCoP/CoP, NiCoP, and NiCoP/Ni2P when the Ni/Co ratio is 0, 0.5, 1, and 2, respectively. The products exhibit different catalytic performance for reduction of 4-nitrophenol at room temperature. Among them, the pure NiCoP delivers a better catalytic efficiency with k app = 677.4 × 10 2   min 1 and k = 338.7   ( Lg 1 min 1 ) , due to the synergy between Ni and Co atoms. The sequence of catalytic efficiency of different samples is CoP < NiCoP/CoP < NiCoP/Ni2P < NiCoP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thickness-Dependent Differential Reflectance Spectra of Monolayer and Few-Layer MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(9), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090725 - 14 Sep 2018
Cited by 32
Abstract
The research field of two dimensional (2D) materials strongly relies on optical microscopy characterization tools to identify atomically thin materials and to determine their number of layers. Moreover, optical microscopy-based techniques opened the door to study the optical properties of these nanomaterials. We [...] Read more.
The research field of two dimensional (2D) materials strongly relies on optical microscopy characterization tools to identify atomically thin materials and to determine their number of layers. Moreover, optical microscopy-based techniques opened the door to study the optical properties of these nanomaterials. We presented a comprehensive study of the differential reflectance spectra of 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2, with thickness ranging from one layer up to six layers. We analyzed the thickness-dependent energy of the different excitonic features, indicating the change in the band structure of the different TMDC materials with the number of layers. Our work provided a route to employ differential reflectance spectroscopy for determining the number of layers of MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Mild and Facile Synthesis of Amino Functionalized CoFe2O4@SiO2 for Hg(II) Removal
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(9), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090673 - 29 Aug 2018
Cited by 16
Abstract
To avoid the dangerous operational conditions, shorten the preparation time, and improve the adsorption performance of amino-functionalized nanomagnetic materials with a core–shell structure, a magnetic nanocomposite of CoFe2O4@SiO2 was successfully functionalized with amino group (−NH2) through [...] Read more.
To avoid the dangerous operational conditions, shorten the preparation time, and improve the adsorption performance of amino-functionalized nanomagnetic materials with a core–shell structure, a magnetic nanocomposite of CoFe2O4@SiO2 was successfully functionalized with amino group (−NH2) through a mild and facile hydrothermal method without the use of any toxic or harmful solvents at a relatively low temperature. The preparation time of the key steps of amino functionalization was shortened from 30 h to about 10 h. The core-shell structure and successful grafting were confirmed by various means. The amino-functionalized CoFe2O4@SiO2 was used for the removal mercury (Hg(II)), a heavy metal, and exhibited excellent magnetic properties and a high Langmuir adsorption capacity of 149.3 mg Hg(II)/g. The adsorption of Hg(II) onto CoFe2O4@SiO2–NH2 followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and Langmuir model. The thermodynamic data showed that the Hg(II) adsorption process was achieved through spontaneous exothermic and monolayer adsorption with electrostatic adsorption and chemisorption. In addition, the as-prepared CoFe2O4@SiO2–NH2 nanoparticles had a good reusable value, good application performance and stability, and can provide a mild and facile way to remove heavy metals from aqueous solution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Plasmonic Sensor Based on Interaction between Silver Nanoparticles and Ni2+ or Co2+ in Water
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070488 - 02 Jul 2018
Cited by 19
Abstract
Silver nanoparticles capped with 3-mercapto-1propanesulfonic acid sodium salt (AgNPs-3MPS), able to interact with Ni2+ or Co2+, have been prepared to detect these heavy metal ions in water. This system works as an optical sensor and it is based on the [...] Read more.
Silver nanoparticles capped with 3-mercapto-1propanesulfonic acid sodium salt (AgNPs-3MPS), able to interact with Ni2+ or Co2+, have been prepared to detect these heavy metal ions in water. This system works as an optical sensor and it is based on the change of the intensity and shape of optical absorption peak due to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) when the AgNPs-3MPS are in presence of metals ions in a water solution. We obtain a specific sensitivity to Ni2+ and Co2+ up to 500 ppb (part per billion). For a concentration of 1 ppm (part per million), the change in the optical absorption is strong enough to produce a colorimetric effect on the solution, easily visible with the naked eye. In addition to the UV-VIS characterizations, morphological and dimensional studies were carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Moreover, the systems were investigated by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS). On the basis of the results, the mechanism responsible for the AgNPs-3MPS interaction with Ni2+ and Co2+ (in the range of 0.5–2.0 ppm) looks like based on the coordination compounds formation. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Chemical and Bio Sensing Using Graphene-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040516 - 02 Apr 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Graphene is a two-dimensional (2D) material consisting of a single sheet of sp2 hybridized carbon atoms laced in a hexagonal lattice, with potentially wide usage as a Raman enhancement substrate, also termed graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS), making it ideal for sensing applications. [...] Read more.
Graphene is a two-dimensional (2D) material consisting of a single sheet of sp2 hybridized carbon atoms laced in a hexagonal lattice, with potentially wide usage as a Raman enhancement substrate, also termed graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS), making it ideal for sensing applications. GERS improves upon traditional surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), combining its single-molecule sensitivity and spectral fingerprinting of molecules, and graphene’s simple processing and superior uniformity. This enables fast and highly sensitive detection of a wide variety of analytes. Accordingly, GERS has been investigated for a wide variety of sensing applications, including chemical- and bio-sensing. As a derivative of GERS, the use of two-dimensional materials other than graphene for Raman enhancement has emerged, which possess remarkably interesting properties and potential wider applications in combination with GERS. In this review, we first introduce various types of 2D materials, including graphene, MoS2, doped graphene, their properties, and synthesis. Then, we describe the principles of GERS and comprehensively explain how the GERS enhancement factors are influenced by molecular and 2D material properties. In the last section, we discuss the application of GERS in chemical- and bio-sensing, and the prospects of such a novel sensing method. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Environmental Remediation Applications of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Oxide: Adsorption and Catalysis
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030439 - 15 Mar 2019
Cited by 14
Abstract
Environmental issues such as the wastewater have influenced each aspect of our lives. Coupling the existing remediation solutions with exploring new functional carbon nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, graphene) by various perspectives shall open up a new venue to understand the environmental [...] Read more.
Environmental issues such as the wastewater have influenced each aspect of our lives. Coupling the existing remediation solutions with exploring new functional carbon nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, graphene) by various perspectives shall open up a new venue to understand the environmental issues, phenomenon and find out the ways to get along with the nature. This review makes an attempt to provide an overview of potential environmental remediation solutions to the diverse challenges happening by using low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials and their composites as adsorbents, catalysts or catalysts support towards for the social sustainability. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Controlling Nitrogen Doping in Graphene with Atomic Precision: Synthesis and Characterization
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030425 - 12 Mar 2019
Cited by 15
Abstract
Graphene provides a unique platform for the detailed study of its dopants at the atomic level. Previously, doped materials including Si, and 0D-1D carbon nanomaterials presented difficulties in the characterization of their dopants due to gradients in their dopant concentration and agglomeration of [...] Read more.
Graphene provides a unique platform for the detailed study of its dopants at the atomic level. Previously, doped materials including Si, and 0D-1D carbon nanomaterials presented difficulties in the characterization of their dopants due to gradients in their dopant concentration and agglomeration of the material itself. Graphene’s two-dimensional nature allows for the detailed characterization of these dopants via spectroscopic and atomic resolution imaging techniques. Nitrogen doping of graphene has been well studied, providing insights into the dopant bonding structure, dopant-dopant interaction, and spatial segregation within a single crystal. Different configurations of nitrogen within the carbon lattice have different electronic and chemical properties, and by controlling these dopants it is possible to either n- or p-type dope graphene, grant half-metallicity, and alter nitrogen doped graphene’s (NG) catalytic and sensing properties. Thus, an understanding and the ability to control different types of nitrogen doping configurations allows for the fine tuning of NG’s properties. Here we review the synthesis, characterization, and properties of nitrogen dopants in NG beyond atomic dopant concentration. Full article
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