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Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030425

Controlling Nitrogen Doping in Graphene with Atomic Precision: Synthesis and Characterization

1
Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University park, PA 16802, USA
2
Center for 2-Dimensional and Layered Materials (2DLM), Pennsylvania State University, University park, PA 16802, USA
3
Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University park, PA 16802, USA
4
Department of Chemistry, and Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University park, PA 16802, USA
5
Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University park, PA 16802, USA
6
The Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University park, PA 16802, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
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Abstract

Graphene provides a unique platform for the detailed study of its dopants at the atomic level. Previously, doped materials including Si, and 0D-1D carbon nanomaterials presented difficulties in the characterization of their dopants due to gradients in their dopant concentration and agglomeration of the material itself. Graphene’s two-dimensional nature allows for the detailed characterization of these dopants via spectroscopic and atomic resolution imaging techniques. Nitrogen doping of graphene has been well studied, providing insights into the dopant bonding structure, dopant-dopant interaction, and spatial segregation within a single crystal. Different configurations of nitrogen within the carbon lattice have different electronic and chemical properties, and by controlling these dopants it is possible to either n- or p-type dope graphene, grant half-metallicity, and alter nitrogen doped graphene’s (NG) catalytic and sensing properties. Thus, an understanding and the ability to control different types of nitrogen doping configurations allows for the fine tuning of NG’s properties. Here we review the synthesis, characterization, and properties of nitrogen dopants in NG beyond atomic dopant concentration. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitrogen doping; graphene; bonding configuration; sublattice segregation; dopant segregation nitrogen doping; graphene; bonding configuration; sublattice segregation; dopant segregation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Granzier-Nakajima, T.; Fujisawa, K.; Anil, V.; Terrones, M.; Yeh, Y.-T. Controlling Nitrogen Doping in Graphene with Atomic Precision: Synthesis and Characterization. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 425.

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