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Chemical and Bio Sensing Using Graphene-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
2
Department of Chemistry, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
3
Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
4
Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
5
Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for 2-Dimensional and Layered Materials, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
6
Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
7
The Photonics Center, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040516
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
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Abstract

Graphene is a two-dimensional (2D) material consisting of a single sheet of sp2 hybridized carbon atoms laced in a hexagonal lattice, with potentially wide usage as a Raman enhancement substrate, also termed graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS), making it ideal for sensing applications. GERS improves upon traditional surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), combining its single-molecule sensitivity and spectral fingerprinting of molecules, and graphene’s simple processing and superior uniformity. This enables fast and highly sensitive detection of a wide variety of analytes. Accordingly, GERS has been investigated for a wide variety of sensing applications, including chemical- and bio-sensing. As a derivative of GERS, the use of two-dimensional materials other than graphene for Raman enhancement has emerged, which possess remarkably interesting properties and potential wider applications in combination with GERS. In this review, we first introduce various types of 2D materials, including graphene, MoS2, doped graphene, their properties, and synthesis. Then, we describe the principles of GERS and comprehensively explain how the GERS enhancement factors are influenced by molecular and 2D material properties. In the last section, we discuss the application of GERS in chemical- and bio-sensing, and the prospects of such a novel sensing method. View Full-Text
Keywords: 2D materials; biochemical sensing; graphene-mediated surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy; chemical mechanism; nanocomposite 2D materials; biochemical sensing; graphene-mediated surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy; chemical mechanism; nanocomposite
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Silver, A.; Kitadai, H.; Liu, H.; Granzier-Nakajima, T.; Terrones, M.; Ling, X.; Huang, S. Chemical and Bio Sensing Using Graphene-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 516.

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