Special Issue "Nanomaterials for Energy Conversion and Catalytic Applications"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy and Catalysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2022 | Viewed by 7710

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Jung Woo Lee
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 48513, Korea
Interests: energy conversion and management; catalyst; lithium-ion battery; supercapacitor; wearable sensors; flexible electronics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Currently, there is a growing demand for clean and renewable energy resources, due to their high efficiency, promising large-scale applications, and almost zero emissions, to replace fossil fuels as society develops rapidly. To meet the requirement of high performance of energy conversion and catalytic activity, various types of substances including organic, inorganic or hybrid materials have been extensively reported. Moreover, if the materials are realized in the nano-sized dimension, performances could be accelerated.

This Special Issue is open to contributions of nanomaterials for various energy conversion and catalytic applications including batteries, supercapacitors, solarcells, fucells, thermoelectrics, piezoelectrics, triboelectrics, and many other areas.

Prof. Dr. Jung Woo Lee
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • catalyst
  • energy harvesting
  • energy storage
  • power management
  • nanomaterial

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
Phase-Controlled NiO Nanoparticles on Reduced Graphene Oxide as Electrocatalysts for Overall Water Splitting
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(12), 3379; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11123379 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 903
Abstract
Efficient water electrolysis is one of the key issues in realizing a clean and renewable energy society based on hydrogen fuel. However, several obstacles remain to be solved for electrochemical water splitting catalysts, which are the high cost of noble metals and the [...] Read more.
Efficient water electrolysis is one of the key issues in realizing a clean and renewable energy society based on hydrogen fuel. However, several obstacles remain to be solved for electrochemical water splitting catalysts, which are the high cost of noble metals and the high overpotential of alternative catalysts. Herein, we suggest Ni-based alternative catalysts that have comparable performances with precious metal-based catalysts and could be applied to both cathode and anode by precise phase control of the pristine catalyst. A facile microwave-assisted procedure was used for NiO nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide (NiO NPs/rGO) with uniform size distribution in ~1.8 nm. Subsequently, the Ni-NiO dual phase of the NPs (A-NiO NPs/rGO) could be obtained via tailored partial reduction of the NiO NPs/rGO. Moreover, we demonstrate from systematic HADDF-EDS and XPS analyses that metallic Ni could be formed in a local area of the NiO NP after the reductive annealing procedure. Indeed, the synergistic catalytic performance of the Ni-NiO phase of the A-NiO NPs/rGO promoted hydrogen evolution reaction activity with an overpotential as 201 mV at 10 mA cm−2, whereas the NiO NPs/rGO showed 353 mV. Meanwhile, the NiO NPs/rGO exhibited the most excellent oxygen evolution reaction performance among all of the Ni-based catalysts, with an overpotential of 369 mV at 10 mA cm−2, indicating that they could be selectively utilized in the overall water splitting. Furthermore, both catalysts retained their activities over 12 h with constant voltage and 1000 cycles under cyclic redox reaction, proving their high durability. Finally, the full cell capability for the overall water electrolysis system was confirmed by observing the generation of hydrogen and oxygen on the surface of the cathode and anode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Energy Conversion and Catalytic Applications)
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Article
Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Supported Pd4.7Ru Nanoparticles Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(10), 2727; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102727 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 777
Abstract
It is imperative to design an inexpensive, active, and durable electrocatalyst in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to replace carbon black supported Pt (Pt/CB). In this work, we synthesized Pd4.7Ru nanoparticles on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (Pd4.7Ru NPs/NrGO) by a [...] Read more.
It is imperative to design an inexpensive, active, and durable electrocatalyst in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to replace carbon black supported Pt (Pt/CB). In this work, we synthesized Pd4.7Ru nanoparticles on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (Pd4.7Ru NPs/NrGO) by a facile microwave-assisted method. Nitrogen atoms were introduced into the graphene by thermal reduction with NH3 gas and several nitrogen atoms, such as pyrrolic, graphitic, and pyridinic N, found by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Pyridinic nitrogen atoms acted as efficient particle anchoring sites, making strong bonding with Pd4.7Ru NPs. Additionally, carbon atoms bonding with pyridinic N facilitated the adsorption of O2 as Lewis bases. The uniformly distributed ~2.4 nm of Pd4.7Ru NPs on the NrGO was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The optimal composition between Pd and Ru is 4.7:1, reaching −6.33 mA/cm2 at 0.3 VRHE for the best ORR activity among all measured catalysts. Furthermore, accelerated degradation test by electrochemical measurements proved its high durability, maintaining its initial current density up to 98.3% at 0.3 VRHE and 93.7% at 0.75 VRHE, whereas other catalysts remained below 90% at all potentials. These outcomes are considered that the doped nitrogen atoms bond with the NPs stably, and their electron-rich states facilitate the interaction with the reactants on the surface. In conclusion, the catalyst can be applied to the fuel cell system, overcoming the high cost, activity, and durability issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Energy Conversion and Catalytic Applications)
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Article
Effect of Sn Doping on Pd Electro-Catalysts for Enhanced Electro-Catalytic Activity towards Methanol and Ethanol Electro-Oxidation in Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(10), 2725; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102725 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 549
Abstract
Carbon nano-onions (CNOs) were successfully synthesized by employing the flame pyrolysis (FP) method, using flaxseed oil as a carbon source. The alcohol reduction method was used to prepare Pd/CNOs and Pd-Sn/CNOs electro-catalysts, with ethylene glycol as the solvent and reduction agent. The metal-nanoparticles [...] Read more.
Carbon nano-onions (CNOs) were successfully synthesized by employing the flame pyrolysis (FP) method, using flaxseed oil as a carbon source. The alcohol reduction method was used to prepare Pd/CNOs and Pd-Sn/CNOs electro-catalysts, with ethylene glycol as the solvent and reduction agent. The metal-nanoparticles were supported on the CNO surface without adjusting the pH of the solution. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images reveal CNOs with concentric graphite ring morphology, and also PdSn nanoparticles supported on the CNOs. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) patterns confirm that CNOs are amorphous and show the characteristic diffraction peaks of Pd. There is a shifting of Pd diffraction peaks to lower angles upon the addition of Sn compared to Pd/CNOs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results also confirm the doping of Pd with Sn to form a PdSn alloy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) displays oxygen, hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl, which facilitates the dispersion of Pd and Sn nanoparticles. Raman spectrum displays two prominent peaks of carbonaceous materials which correspond to the D and G bands. The Pd-Sn/CNOs electro-catalyst demonstrates improved electro-oxidation of methanol and ethanol performance compared to Pd/CNOs and commercial Pd/C electro-catalysts under alkaline conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Energy Conversion and Catalytic Applications)
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Article
Reduced Graphene-Oxide-Encapsulated MoS2/Carbon Nanofiber Composite Electrode for High-Performance Na-Ion Batteries
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(10), 2691; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102691 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 897
Abstract
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have been increasingly studied due to sodium (Na) being an inexpensive ionic resource (Na) and their battery chemistry being similar to that of current lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, SIBs have faced substantial challenges in developing high-performance anode materials that can [...] Read more.
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have been increasingly studied due to sodium (Na) being an inexpensive ionic resource (Na) and their battery chemistry being similar to that of current lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, SIBs have faced substantial challenges in developing high-performance anode materials that can reversibly store Na+ in the host structure. To address these challenges, molybdenum sulfide (MoS2)-based active materials have been considered as promising anodes, owing to the two-dimensional layered structure of MoS2 for stably (de)inserting Na+. Nevertheless, intrinsic issues of MoS2—such as low electronic conductivity and the loss of active S elements after a conversion reaction—have limited the viability of MoS2 in practical SIBs. Here, we report MoS2 embedded in carbon nanofibers encapsulated with a reduced graphene oxide (MoS2@[email protected]) composite for SIB anodes. The MoS2@[email protected] delivered a high capacity of 345.8 mAh g−1 at a current density of 100 mA g−1 for 90 cycles. The CNFs and rGO were synergistically taken into account for providing rapid pathways for electrons and preventing the dissolution of S sources during repetitive conversion reactions. This work offers a new point of view to realize MoS2-based anode materials in practical SIBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Energy Conversion and Catalytic Applications)
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Article
Ammonium Ion Enhanced V2O5-WO3/TiO2 Catalysts for Selective Catalytic Reduction with Ammonia
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(10), 2677; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102677 - 12 Oct 2021
Viewed by 635
Abstract
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is the most efficient NOX removal technology, and the vanadium-based catalyst is mainly used in SCR technology. The vanadium-based catalyst showed higher NOX removal performance in the high-temperature range but catalytic efficiency decreased at lower temperatures, following [...] Read more.
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is the most efficient NOX removal technology, and the vanadium-based catalyst is mainly used in SCR technology. The vanadium-based catalyst showed higher NOX removal performance in the high-temperature range but catalytic efficiency decreased at lower temperatures, following exposure to SOX because of the generation of ammonium sulfate on the catalyst surface. To overcome these limitations, we coated an NH4+ layer on a vanadium-based catalyst. After silane coating the V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst by vapor evaporation, the silanized catalyst was heat treated under NH3 gas. By decomposing the silane on the surface, an NH4+ layer was formed on the catalyst surface through a substitution reaction. We observed high NOX removal efficiency over a wide temperature range by coating an NH4+ layer on a vanadium-based catalyst. This layer shows high proton conductivity, which leads to the reduction of vanadium oxides and tungsten oxide; additionally, the NOX removal performance was improved over a wide temperature range. These findings provide a new mothed to develop SCR catalyst with high efficiency at a wide temperature range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Energy Conversion and Catalytic Applications)
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Article
Fabrication and Application of Zeolite/Acanthophora Spicifera Nanoporous Composite for Adsorption of Congo Red Dye from Wastewater
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(9), 2441; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092441 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 830
Abstract
Systematic investigations involving laboratory, analytical, and field trials were carried out to obtain the most efficient adsorbent for the removal of congo red (CR) dye from industrial effluent. Modification of the zeolite (Z) by the Acanthophora Spicifera algae (AS; marine algae) was evaluated [...] Read more.
Systematic investigations involving laboratory, analytical, and field trials were carried out to obtain the most efficient adsorbent for the removal of congo red (CR) dye from industrial effluent. Modification of the zeolite (Z) by the Acanthophora Spicifera algae (AS; marine algae) was evaluated in terms of adsorption capability of the zeolite to remove CR dye from aqueous solution. The zeolite/algae composite (ZAS) was fabricated using the wet impregnation technique. The AS, Z, and the synthesized ZAS composite were analyzed utilizing various characterization techniques. The newly synthesized ZAS composite has an adsorption capacity that is significantly higher than that of Z and AS, particularly at low CR concentrations. Batch experiments were carried out to explore the effects of different experimental factors, as well as the dye adsorption isotherms and kinetics. Owing to the presence of intermolecular interactions, the computational analysis showed that the adsorption of the CR molecule on zeolite surfaces is exothermic, energetically favorable, and spontaneous. Furthermore, growing the zeolite surface area has no discernible effect on the adsorption energies in all configurations. The ZAS composite may be used as a low-cost substitute adsorbent for the removal of anionic dyes from industrial wastewater at lower dye concentrations, according to the experimental results. Adsorption of CR dye onto Z, AS, and ZAS adsorbents was adequately explained by pseudo-second-order kinetics and the Langmuir isotherm. The sorption mechanism was also evaluated using Weber’s intra-particle diffusion module. Finally, field testing revealed that the newly synthesized adsorbent was 98.0% efficient at extracting dyes from industrial wastewater, proving the foundation of modern eco-friendly materials that aid in the reuse of industrial wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Energy Conversion and Catalytic Applications)
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Article
Effect of Catalyst Crystallinity on V-Based Selective Catalytic Reduction with Ammonia
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(6), 1452; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061452 - 30 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1358
Abstract
In this study, we synthesized V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalysts with different crystallinities via one-sided and isotropic heating methods. We then investigated the effects of the catalysts’ crystallinity on their acidity, surface species, and catalytic performance through various analysis [...] Read more.
In this study, we synthesized V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalysts with different crystallinities via one-sided and isotropic heating methods. We then investigated the effects of the catalysts’ crystallinity on their acidity, surface species, and catalytic performance through various analysis techniques and a fixed-bed reactor experiment. The isotropic heating method produced crystalline V2O5 and WO3, increasing the availability of both Brønsted and Lewis acid sites, while the one-sided method produced amorphous V2O5 and WO3. The crystalline structure of the two species significantly enhanced NO2 formation, causing more rapid selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactions and greater catalyst reducibility for NOX decomposition. This improved NOX removal efficiency and N2 selectivity for a wider temperature range of 200 °C–450 °C. Additionally, the synthesized, crystalline catalysts exhibited good resistance to SO2, which is common in industrial flue gases. Through the results reported herein, this study may contribute to future studies on SCR catalysts and other catalyst systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Energy Conversion and Catalytic Applications)
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Article
Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of TiN Thin Films as an Effective Se Diffusion Barrier for CIGS Solar Cells
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(2), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020370 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 969
Abstract
Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of TiN thin films were investigated as an effective Se diffusion barrier layer for Cu (In, Ga) Se2 (CIGS) solar cells. Before the deposition of TiN thin film on CIGS solar cells, a saturated growth rate of [...] Read more.
Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of TiN thin films were investigated as an effective Se diffusion barrier layer for Cu (In, Ga) Se2 (CIGS) solar cells. Before the deposition of TiN thin film on CIGS solar cells, a saturated growth rate of 0.67 Å/cycle was confirmed using tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium (TDMAT) and N2 plasma at 200 °C. Then, a Mo (≈30 nm)/PEALD-TiN (≈5 nm)/Mo (≈600 nm) back contact stack was fabricated to investigate the effects of PEALD-TiN thin films on the Se diffusion. After the selenization process, it was revealed that ≈5 nm-thick TiN thin films can effectively block Se diffusion and that only the top Mo layer prepared on the TiN thin films reacted with Se to form a MoSe2 layer. Without the TiN diffusion barrier layer, however, Se continuously diffused along the grain boundaries of the entire Mo back contact electrode. Finally, the adoption of a TiN diffusion barrier layer improved the photovoltaic efficiency of the CIGS solar cell by approximately 10%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Energy Conversion and Catalytic Applications)
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