Special Issue "Advanced Synchrotron Radiation Techniques for Nanostructured Materials"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Chiara Battocchio

Department of Science, Roma Tre University, 00146 Roma, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: molecular and electronic structure of nanostructured materials, carried out by state-of-the-art Synchrotron Radiation (SR)-induced techniques such as X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SR-XPS), X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS), as well as conventional XPS, UV-visible absorption and emission and FT-IR spectroscopies; organic molecules and π-conjugated organometallic oligomers; biocompatible materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanostructured materials exploit physical phenomena and mechanisms that cannot be derived by simply scaling down the associated bulk structures and phenomena; furthermore, new quantum effects come into play in nanosystems. The exploitation of these emerging nanoscale interactions prompts the innovative design of nanomaterials.

Understanding the behavior of materials on all length scales, from the nanostructure up to the macroscopic response, is a critical challenge for materials science. Modern analytical technologies based on Synchrotron Radiation (SR) allow the non-destructive investigation of the chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of materials in any environment. SR facilities have developed revolutionary new ideas and experimental set-ups to characterize nanomaterials, involving spectroscopy, diffraction, scatterings, microscopy, tomography, and all kinds of highly sophisticated combinations of such investigation techniques.

This Special Issue seeks to cover all aspects of Synchrotron Radiation applied to the investigation of chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of nanostructured materials.

Prof. Chiara Battocchio
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Synchrotron Radiation techniques
  • Synchrotron Radiation-induced spectroscopies
  • X-ray absorption spectroscopy
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
  • X-ray diffraction
  • Nanostructured materials
  • Molecular structure of nanomaterials
  • Magnetic structure of nanomaterials
  • Electronic structure of nanomaterials

Published Papers (6 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-6
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Direct Spectroscopy for Probing the Critical Role of Partial Covalency in Oxygen Reduction Reaction for Cobalt-Manganese Spinel Oxides
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040577
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 30 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 9 April 2019
PDF Full-text (2431 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nanocrystalline multivalent metal spinels are considered as attractive non-precious oxygen electrocatalysts. Identifying their active sites and understanding their reaction mechanisms are essential to explore novel transition metal (TM) oxides catalysts and further promote their catalytic efficiency. Here we report a systematic investigation, by [...] Read more.
Nanocrystalline multivalent metal spinels are considered as attractive non-precious oxygen electrocatalysts. Identifying their active sites and understanding their reaction mechanisms are essential to explore novel transition metal (TM) oxides catalysts and further promote their catalytic efficiency. Here we report a systematic investigation, by means of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS), on cubic and tetragonal CoxMn3-xO4 (x = 1, 1.5, 2) spinel oxides as a family of highly active catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). We demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to the partial covalency of between O 2p orbital with Mn4+ 3d t2g-down/eg-up, Mn3+ 3d eg-up and Co3+ 3d eg-up orbitals in octahedron, which is directly revealed by the O K-edge sXAS. Our findings propose the critical influences of the partial covalency between oxygen 2p band and specific metal 3d band on the competition between intermediates displacement of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Microscopic Views of Atomic and Molecular Oxygen Bonding with epi Ge(001)-2 × 1 Studied by High-Resolution Synchrotron Radiation Photoemission
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040554
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 30 March 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
PDF Full-text (2883 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate the embryonic stage of oxidation of an epi Ge(001)-2 × 1 by atomic oxygen and molecular O2 via synchrotron radiation photoemission. The topmost buckled surface with the up- and down-dimer atoms, and the first subsurface layer behaves [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate the embryonic stage of oxidation of an epi Ge(001)-2 × 1 by atomic oxygen and molecular O2 via synchrotron radiation photoemission. The topmost buckled surface with the up- and down-dimer atoms, and the first subsurface layer behaves distinctly from the bulk by exhibiting surface core-level shifts in the Ge 3d core-level spectrum. The O2 molecules become dissociated upon reaching the epi Ge(001)-2 × 1 surface. One of the O atoms removes the up-dimer atom and the other bonds with the underneath Ge atom in the subsurface layer. Atomic oxygen preferentially adsorbed on the epi Ge(001)-2 ×1 in between the up-dimer atoms and the underneath subsurface atoms, without affecting the down-dimer atoms. The electronic environment of the O-affiliated Ge up-dimer atoms becomes similar to that of the down-dimer atoms. They both exhibit an enrichment in charge, where the subsurface of the Ge layer is maintained in a charge-deficient state. The dipole moment that was originally generated in the buckled reconstruction no longer exists, thereby resulting in a decrease in the ionization potential. The down-dimer Ge atoms and the back-bonded subsurface atoms remain inert to atomic O and molecular O2, which might account for the low reliability in the Ge-related metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle On the Formation of Nanocrystalline Grains in Metallic Glasses by Means of In-Situ Nuclear Forward Scattering of Synchrotron Radiation
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040544
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
PDF Full-text (895 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Application of the so-called nuclear forward scattering (NFS) of synchrotron radiation is presented for the study of crystallization of metallic glasses. In this process, nanocrystalline alloys are formed. Using NFS, the transformation process can be directly observed during in-situ temperature experiments not only [...] Read more.
Application of the so-called nuclear forward scattering (NFS) of synchrotron radiation is presented for the study of crystallization of metallic glasses. In this process, nanocrystalline alloys are formed. Using NFS, the transformation process can be directly observed during in-situ temperature experiments not only from the structural point of view, i.e., formation of nanocrystalline grains, but one can also observe evolution of the corresponding hyperfine interactions. In doing so, we have revealed the influence of external magnetic field on the crystallization process. The applied magnetic field is not only responsible for an increase of hyperfine magnetic fields within the newly formed nanograins but also the corresponding components in the NFS time spectra are better identified via occurrence of quantum beats with higher frequencies. In order to distinguish between these two effects, simulated and experimental NFS time spectra obtained during in-situ temperature measurements with and without external magnetic field are compared. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Structural and Thermal Characterisation of Nanofilms by Time-Resolved X-ray Scattering
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040501
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
PDF Full-text (788 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High time resolution in scattering analysis of thin films allows for determination of thermal conductivity by transient pump-probe detection of dissipation of laser-induced heating, TDXTS. We describe an approach that analyses the picosecond-resolved lattice parameter reaction of a gold transducer layer on pulsed [...] Read more.
High time resolution in scattering analysis of thin films allows for determination of thermal conductivity by transient pump-probe detection of dissipation of laser-induced heating, TDXTS. We describe an approach that analyses the picosecond-resolved lattice parameter reaction of a gold transducer layer on pulsed laser heating to determine the thermal conductivity of layered structures below the transducer. A detailed modeling of the cooling kinetics by a Laplace-domain approach allows for discerning effects of conductivity and thermal interface resistance as well as basic depth information. The thermal expansion of the clamped gold film can be calibrated to absolute temperature change and effects of plastic deformation are discriminated. The method is demonstrated on two extreme examples of phononic barriers, isotopically modulated silicon multilayers with very small acoustic impedance mismatch and silicon-molybdenum multilayers, which show a high resistivity. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle In Situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Studies of the Bromide Anions Dissolved in 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Tetrafluoroborate
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020304
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
PDF Full-text (6729 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Influence of electrode potential on the electrochemical behavior of a 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMImBF4) solution containing 5 wt % 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (EMImBr) has been investigated using electrochemical and synchrotron-initiated high-resolution in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) methods. Observation of the Br 3d [...] Read more.
Influence of electrode potential on the electrochemical behavior of a 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMImBF4) solution containing 5 wt % 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (EMImBr) has been investigated using electrochemical and synchrotron-initiated high-resolution in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) methods. Observation of the Br 3d5/2 in situ XPS signal, collected in a 5 wt % EMImBr solution at an EMImBF4–vacuum interface, enabled the detection of the start of the electrooxidation process of the Br anion to Br3 anion and thereafter to the Br2 at the micro-mesoporous carbon electrode, polarized continuously at the high fixed positive potentials. A new photoelectron peak, corresponding to B–O bond formation in the B 1s in situ XPS spectra at E ≤ −1.17 V, parallel to the start of the electroreduction of the residual water at the micro-mesoporous carbon electrode, was observed and is discussed. The electroreduction of the residual water caused a reduction in the absolute value of binding energy vs. potential plot slope twice to ca. dBE dE−1 = −0.5 eV V−1 at E ≤ −1.17 V for C 1s, N 1s, B 1s, F 1s, and Br 3d5/2 photoelectrons. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Biocompatible Materials Based on Self-Assembling Peptides on Ti25Nb10Zr Alloy: Molecular Structure and Organization Investigated by Synchrotron Radiation Induced Techniques
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(3), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8030148
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3987 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this work, we applied advanced Synchrotron Radiation (SR) induced techniques to the study of the chemisorption of the Self Assembling Peptide EAbuK16, i.e., H-Abu-Glu-Abu-Glu-Abu-Lys-Abu-Lys-Abu-Glu-Abu-Glu-Abu-Lys-Abu-Lys-NH2 that is able to spontaneously aggregate in anti-parallel β-sheet conformation, onto annealed Ti25Nb10Zr alloy surfaces. This synthetic [...] Read more.
In this work, we applied advanced Synchrotron Radiation (SR) induced techniques to the study of the chemisorption of the Self Assembling Peptide EAbuK16, i.e., H-Abu-Glu-Abu-Glu-Abu-Lys-Abu-Lys-Abu-Glu-Abu-Glu-Abu-Lys-Abu-Lys-NH2 that is able to spontaneously aggregate in anti-parallel β-sheet conformation, onto annealed Ti25Nb10Zr alloy surfaces. This synthetic amphiphilic oligopeptide is a good candidate to mimic extracellular matrix for bone prosthesis, since its β-sheets stack onto each other in a multilayer oriented nanostructure with internal pores of 5–200 nm size. To prepare the biomimetic material, Ti25Nb10Zr discs were treated with aqueous solutions of EAbuK16 at different pH values. Here we present the results achieved by performing SR-induced X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SR-XPS), angle-dependent Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, FESEM and AFM imaging on Ti25Nb10Zr discs after incubation with self-assembling peptide solution at five different pH values, selected deliberately to investigate the best conditions for peptide immobilization. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Nanomaterials EISSN 2079-4991 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top