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Open AccessArticle

Extracting the Dynamic Magnetic Contrast in Time-Resolved X-Ray Transmission Microscopy

1
Institute of Semiconductor and Solid State Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, 4040 Linz, Austria
2
Faculty of Physics and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, 47057 Duisburg, Germany
3
Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland
4
Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden, Germany
5
Max-Planck-Institut für Intelligente Systeme, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
6
Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(7), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9070940
Received: 28 May 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
Using a time-resolved detection scheme in scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), we measured element resolved ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) at microwave frequencies up to 10 GHz and a spatial resolution down to 20 nm at two different synchrotrons. We present different methods to separate the contribution of the background from the dynamic magnetic contrast based on the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) effect. The relative phase between the GHz microwave excitation and the X-ray pulses generated by the synchrotron, as well as the opening angle of the precession at FMR can be quantified. A detailed analysis for homogeneous and inhomogeneous magnetic excitations demonstrates that the dynamic contrast indeed behaves as the usual XMCD effect. The dynamic magnetic contrast in time-resolved STXM has the potential be a powerful tool to study the linear and nonlinear, magnetic excitations in magnetic micro- and nano-structures with unique spatial-temporal resolution in combination with element selectivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: ferromagnetic resonance; X-ray magnetic circular dichroism; scanning transmission X-ray microscopy ferromagnetic resonance; X-ray magnetic circular dichroism; scanning transmission X-ray microscopy
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Schaffers, T.; Feggeler, T.; Pile, S.; Meckenstock, R.; Buchner, M.; Spoddig, D.; Ney, V.; Farle, M.; Wende, H.; Wintz, S.; Weigand, M.; Ohldag, H.; Ollefs, K.; Ney, A. Extracting the Dynamic Magnetic Contrast in Time-Resolved X-Ray Transmission Microscopy. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 940.

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