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Open AccessArticle

Extracting the Dynamic Magnetic Contrast in Time-Resolved X-Ray Transmission Microscopy

Institute of Semiconductor and Solid State Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, 4040 Linz, Austria
Faculty of Physics and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, 47057 Duisburg, Germany
Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland
Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden, Germany
Max-Planck-Institut für Intelligente Systeme, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(7), 940;
Received: 28 May 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
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Using a time-resolved detection scheme in scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), we measured element resolved ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) at microwave frequencies up to 10 GHz and a spatial resolution down to 20 nm at two different synchrotrons. We present different methods to separate the contribution of the background from the dynamic magnetic contrast based on the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) effect. The relative phase between the GHz microwave excitation and the X-ray pulses generated by the synchrotron, as well as the opening angle of the precession at FMR can be quantified. A detailed analysis for homogeneous and inhomogeneous magnetic excitations demonstrates that the dynamic contrast indeed behaves as the usual XMCD effect. The dynamic magnetic contrast in time-resolved STXM has the potential be a powerful tool to study the linear and nonlinear, magnetic excitations in magnetic micro- and nano-structures with unique spatial-temporal resolution in combination with element selectivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: ferromagnetic resonance; X-ray magnetic circular dichroism; scanning transmission X-ray microscopy ferromagnetic resonance; X-ray magnetic circular dichroism; scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

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Schaffers, T.; Feggeler, T.; Pile, S.; Meckenstock, R.; Buchner, M.; Spoddig, D.; Ney, V.; Farle, M.; Wende, H.; Wintz, S.; Weigand, M.; Ohldag, H.; Ollefs, K.; Ney, A. Extracting the Dynamic Magnetic Contrast in Time-Resolved X-Ray Transmission Microscopy. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 940.

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