Special Issue "Nanomaterials to Enhance Food Quality, Safety, and Health Impact"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jose María LAGARON

Department of Industrial Engineering and Design (ESID), Polymers Group of the Area of Materials, University Jaume I, Castellón, Spain
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Phone: +34-9639-00022
Interests: Biopolymers, Nanomaterials, Antimicrobials, Encapsulation, High Barrier Materials
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Sergio Torres-Giner

Novel Materials and Nanotechnology Group, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Paterna 46980, Spain
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Interests: sustainable polymer technologies from agro-food waste; nanofibers obtained by electrospinning; controlled release of active compounds in plastic formulations; polymers for food packaging
Guest Editor
Dr. Cristina PRIETO

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA)-CSIC, Avda. Agustín Escardino, 7, Paterna 46980, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Food Quality and Safety, Encapsulation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food quality, safety, and fortification are key aspects to guarantee that foods reach consumers in optimal conditions, from the point of view of freshness, microbiology, and health promotion. Nanotechnology offers significant potential to secure or even enhance these aspects. Technologies, such as nanofabrication and nanoencapsulation, provide new added value solutions for the fortification of foods with bioactives, and also for targeted controlled release in the gut. Nanomaterials can also support food quality and safety by being added directly into a food matrix or into food contact materials, such as packaging. Thus, nanomaterials can be leveraged in the form of nanocomposites into food packaging design via melt compounding, lamination or electrohydrodynamic processing to promote roles such as barrier, antimicrobial, antioxidant, oxygen scavenging, and controlled release of bioactives. These attributes can be exerted either by intended or non-intended migration of the nanomaterials or the active substances they may carry. Lastly, nanomaterials can also be advantageously applied to provide unique opportunities in circular bioeconomy strategies in relation to the valorization of, for instance, bio-based materials, agro-based by-products, and biowaste. This Special Issue targets fundamental and oriented efforts made by researchers and technologist to address all the topics mentioned above.

Dr. Jose Maria LAGARON
Dr. Sergio TORRES-GINER
Dr. Cristina PRIETO
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Antioxidants
  • Oxygen scavengers
  • Antimicrobials
  • Bioactives
  • Barrier, Active and Bioactive Packaging
  • Controlled Release
  • Migration
  • Nanoencapsulation
  • Nanobiocomposites

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Transparent and Robust All-Cellulose Nanocomposite Packaging Materials Prepared in a Mixture of Trifluoroacetic Acid and Trifluoroacetic Anhydride
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030368
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 21 February 2019 / Accepted: 24 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
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Abstract
All-cellulose composites with a potential application as food packaging films were prepared by dissolving microcrystalline cellulose in a mixture of trifluoroacetic acid and trifluoroacetic anhydride, adding cellulose nanofibers, and evaporating the solvents. First, the effect of the solvents on the morphology, structure, [...] Read more.
All-cellulose composites with a potential application as food packaging films were prepared by dissolving microcrystalline cellulose in a mixture of trifluoroacetic acid and trifluoroacetic anhydride, adding cellulose nanofibers, and evaporating the solvents. First, the effect of the solvents on the morphology, structure, and thermal properties of the nanofibers was evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. An important reduction in the crystallinity was observed. Then, the optical, morphological, mechanical, and water barrier properties of the nanocomposites were determined. In general, the final properties of the composites depended on the nanocellulose content. Thus, although the transparency decreased with the amount of cellulose nanofibers due to increased light scattering, normalized transmittance values were higher than 80% in all the cases. On the other hand, the best mechanical properties were achieved for concentrations of nanofibers between 5 and 9 wt.%. At higher concentrations, the cellulose nanofibers aggregated and/or folded, decreasing the mechanical parameters as confirmed analytically by modeling of the composite Young’s modulus. Finally, regarding the water barrier properties, water uptake was not affected by the presence of cellulose nanofibers while water permeability was reduced because of the higher tortuosity induced by the nanocelluloses. In view of such properties, these materials are suggested as food packaging films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials to Enhance Food Quality, Safety, and Health Impact)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Bilayers Based on PHBV and Plasticized Electrospun PLA-PHB Fibers Encapsulating Catechin
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030346
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 3 March 2019
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Abstract
The main objective of this work was to develop bio-based and biodegradable bilayer systems with antioxidant properties. The outer layer was based on a compression-molded poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)-based material while antioxidant electrospun fibers based on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) blends formed the [...] Read more.
The main objective of this work was to develop bio-based and biodegradable bilayer systems with antioxidant properties. The outer layer was based on a compression-molded poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)-based material while antioxidant electrospun fibers based on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) blends formed the inner active layer. In particular, PLA was blended with 25 wt% of PHB to increase the crystallinity of the fibers and reduce the fiber defects. Moreover, in order to increase the stretchability and to facilitate the electrospinning process of the fiber mats, 15 wt% of oligomeric lactic acid was added as a plasticizer. This system was further loaded with 1 wt% and 3 wt% of catechin, a natural flavonoid with antioxidant activity, to obtain antioxidant-active mats for active food packaging applications. The obtained bilayer systems showed effective catechin release capacity into a fatty food simulant. While the released catechin showed antioxidant effectiveness. Finally, bilayer films showed appropriate disintegration in compost conditions in around three months. Thus, showing their potential as bio-based and biodegradable active packaging for fatty food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials to Enhance Food Quality, Safety, and Health Impact)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Physicochemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Electrospun Poly(ε-caprolactone) Films Containing a Solid Dispersion of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) Extract
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020270
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
In this study, novel active films made of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) containing a solid dispersion of sage extract (SE) were developed by means of the electrospinning technique and subsequent annealing treatment. Initially, the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of SE was confirmed. Thereafter, the effect [...] Read more.
In this study, novel active films made of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) containing a solid dispersion of sage extract (SE) were developed by means of the electrospinning technique and subsequent annealing treatment. Initially, the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of SE was confirmed. Thereafter, the effect of SE incorporation at different loading contents (5%, 10%, and 20%) on the physicochemical and functional properties of the films was evaluated. The films were characterized in terms of morphology, transparency, water contact angle, thermal stability, tensile properties, water vapor, and aroma barrier performances, as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Thin, hydrophobic films with good contact transparency were produced by annealing of the ultrathin electrospun fibers. Interestingly, the effect of SE addition on tensile properties and thermal stability of the films was negligible. In general, the water vapor and aroma permeability of the PCL-based films increased by adding SE to the polymer. Nevertheless, a strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) free radical scavenging ability, and a strong activity against foodborne pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were achieved by SE incorporation into PCL matrix. Overall, the obtained results suggest great potential of the here-developed PCL-based films containing SE in active food packaging applications with the role of preventing oxidation processes and microbial growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials to Enhance Food Quality, Safety, and Health Impact)
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Open AccessArticle Oxygen-Scavenging Multilayered Biopapers Containing Palladium Nanoparticles Obtained by the Electrospinning Coating Technique
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020262
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
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Abstract
The main goal of this study was to obtain, for the first time, highly efficient water barrier and oxygen-scavenging multilayered electrospun biopaper coatings of biodegradable polymers over conventional cellulose paper, using the electrospinning coating technique. In order to do so, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and [...] Read more.
The main goal of this study was to obtain, for the first time, highly efficient water barrier and oxygen-scavenging multilayered electrospun biopaper coatings of biodegradable polymers over conventional cellulose paper, using the electrospinning coating technique. In order to do so, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer-containing palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) were electrospun over paper, and the morphology, thermal properties, water vapor barrier, and oxygen absorption properties of nanocomposites and multilayers were investigated. In order to reduce the porosity, and to enhance the barrier properties and interlayer adhesion, the biopapers were annealed after electrospinning. A previous study showed that electrospun PHB-containing PdNP did show significant oxygen scavenging capacity, but this was strongly reduced after annealing, a process that is necessary to form a continuous film with the water barrier. The results in the current work indicate that the PdNP were better dispersed and distributed in the PCL matrix, as suggested by focus ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) experiments, and that the Pd enhanced, to some extent, the onset of PCL degradation. More importantly, the PCL/PdNP nanobiopaper exhibited much higher oxygen scavenging capacity than the homologous PHB/PdNP, due to most likely, the higher oxygen permeability of the PCL polymer and the somewhat higher dispersion of the Pd. The passive and active multilayered biopapers developed here may be of significant relevance to put forward the next generation of fully biodegradable barrier papers of interest in, for instance, food packaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials to Enhance Food Quality, Safety, and Health Impact)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Electrospun Antimicrobial Films of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) Containing Eugenol Essential Oil Encapsulated in Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020227
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 2 February 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
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Abstract
The main goal of this study was to develop poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) films with long-term antimicrobial capacity of interest in food packaging applications. To this end, eugenol was first highly efficiently encapsulated at 50 wt.-% in the pores of mesoporous silica nanoparticles [...] Read more.
The main goal of this study was to develop poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) films with long-term antimicrobial capacity of interest in food packaging applications. To this end, eugenol was first highly efficiently encapsulated at 50 wt.-% in the pores of mesoporous silica nanoparticles by vapor adsorption. The eugenol-containing nanoparticles were then loaded in the 2.5–20 wt.-% range into PHBV by electrospinning and the resultant electrospun composite fibers were annealed at 155 °C to produce continuous films. The characterization showed that the PHBV films filled with mesoporous silica nanoparticles containing eugenol present sufficient thermal resistance and enhanced mechanical strength and barrier performance to water vapor and limonene. The antimicrobial activity of the films was also evaluated against foodborne bacteria for 15 days in open vs. closed conditions in order to simulate real packaging conditions. The electrospun PHBV films with loadings above 10 wt.-% of mesoporous silica nanoparticles containing eugenol successfully inhibited the bacterial growth, whereas the active films stored in hermetically closed systems increased their antimicrobial activity after 15 days due to the volatile portion accumulated in the system’s headspace and the sustained release capacity of the films. The resultant biopolymer films are, therefore, potential candidates to be applied in active food packaging applications to provide shelf life extension and food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials to Enhance Food Quality, Safety, and Health Impact)
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Performance of Various Essential Oils and Natural Extracts and Their Incorporation into Biowaste Derived Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) Layers Made from Electrospun Ultrathin Fibers
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020144
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
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Abstract
In this research, the antibacterial and antioxidant properties of oregano essential oil (OEO), rosemary extract (RE), and green tea extract (GTE) were evaluated. These active substances were encapsulated into ultrathin fibers of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) derived from fruit waste using solution electrospinning, [...] Read more.
In this research, the antibacterial and antioxidant properties of oregano essential oil (OEO), rosemary extract (RE), and green tea extract (GTE) were evaluated. These active substances were encapsulated into ultrathin fibers of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) derived from fruit waste using solution electrospinning, and the resultant electrospun mats were annealed to produce continuous films. The incorporation of the active substances resulted in PHBV films with a relatively high contact transparency, but it also induced a slightly yellow appearance and increased the films opacity. Whereas OEO significantly reduced the onset of thermal degradation of PHBV, both the RE and GTE-containing PHBV films showed a thermal stability profile that was similar to the neat PHBV film. In any case, all the active PHBV films were stable up to approximately 200 °C. The incorporation of the active substances also resulted in a significant decrease in hydrophobicity. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the films were finally evaluated in both open and closed systems for up to 15 days in order to anticipate the real packaging conditions. The results showed that the electrospun OEO-containing PHBV films presented the highest antimicrobial activity against two strains of food-borne bacteria, as well as the most significant antioxidant performance, ascribed to the films high content in carvacrol and thymol. Therefore, the PHBV films developed in this study presented high antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and they can be applied as active layers to prolong the shelf life of the foods in biopackaging applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials to Enhance Food Quality, Safety, and Health Impact)
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Open AccessArticle Exploring Protein-Inorganic Hybrid Nanoflowers and Immune Magnetic Nanobeads to Detect Salmonella Typhimurium
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(12), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8121006
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
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Abstract
Early screening of pathogenic bacteria is key to preventing and controlling outbreaks of foodborne diseases. In this study, protein-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers were synthesized for signal amplification and used with a calcium ion selective electrode (Ca-ISE) to establish a new enzyme-free assay for rapid [...] Read more.
Early screening of pathogenic bacteria is key to preventing and controlling outbreaks of foodborne diseases. In this study, protein-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers were synthesized for signal amplification and used with a calcium ion selective electrode (Ca-ISE) to establish a new enzyme-free assay for rapid and sensitive detection of Salmonella. Calcium hydrophosphate crystals were first conjugated with polyclonal antibodies against Salmonella to synthesize immune calcium nanoflowers (CaNFs), and streptavidin modified magnetic nanobeads (MNBs) were conjugated with biotinylated monoclonal antibodies against Salmonella to form immune MNBs. After target bacteria were separated using immune MNBs to form magnetic bacteria, immune CaNFs were conjugated with magnetic bacteria to form nanoflower conjugated bacteria. Then, hydrogen chloride was used to release calcium ions from nanoflower conjugated bacteria. After magnetic separation, the supernatant was finally injected as a continuous-flow to fluidic chip with Ca-ISE for specific detection of calcium ions. The supernatant’s potential had a good linear relationship with bacteria concentration, and this assay was able to detect the S. Typhimurium cells as low as 28 colony forming units/mL within two hours. The mean recovery of target bacteria in spiked chicken samples was 95.0%. This proposed assay shows the potential for rapid, sensitive, and on-line detection of foodborne pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials to Enhance Food Quality, Safety, and Health Impact)
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Open AccessArticle Use of Electrosprayed Agave Fructans as Nanoencapsulating Hydrocolloids for Bioactives
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(11), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8110868
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
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Abstract
High degree of polymerization Agave fructans (HDPAF) are presented as a novel encapsulating material. Electrospraying coating (EC) was selected as the encapsulation technique and β-carotene as the model bioactive compound. For direct electrospraying, two encapsulation methodologies (solution and emulsion) were proposed to find [...] Read more.
High degree of polymerization Agave fructans (HDPAF) are presented as a novel encapsulating material. Electrospraying coating (EC) was selected as the encapsulation technique and β-carotene as the model bioactive compound. For direct electrospraying, two encapsulation methodologies (solution and emulsion) were proposed to find the formulation which provided a suitable particle morphology and an adequate concentration of β-carotene encapsulated in the particles to provide a protective effect of β-carotene by the nanocapsules. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed spherical particles with sizes ranging from 440 nm to 880 nm depending on the concentration of HDPAF and processing parameters. FTIR analysis confirmed the interaction and encapsulation of β-carotene with HDPAF. The thermal stability of β-carotene encapsulated in HDPAF was evidenced by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The study showed that β-carotene encapsulated in HDPAF by the EC method remained stable for up to 50 h of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. Therefore, HDPAF is a viable option to formulate nanocapsules as a new encapsulating material. In addition, EC allowed for increases in the ratio of β-carotene:polymer, as well as its photostability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials to Enhance Food Quality, Safety, and Health Impact)
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Open AccessArticle Ultrasonic Irradiation Coupled with Microwave Treatment for Eco-friendly Process of Isolating Bacterial Cellulose Nanocrystals
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100859
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
The isolation of crystalline regions from fibers cellulose via the hydrolysis route generally requires corrosive chemicals, high-energy demands, and long reaction times, resulting in high economic costs and environmental impact. From this basis, this work seeks to develop environment-friendly processes for the production [...] Read more.
The isolation of crystalline regions from fibers cellulose via the hydrolysis route generally requires corrosive chemicals, high-energy demands, and long reaction times, resulting in high economic costs and environmental impact. From this basis, this work seeks to develop environment-friendly processes for the production of Bacterial Cellulose Nanocrystals (BC-NC). To overcome the aforementioned issues, this study proposes a fast, highly-efficient and eco-friendly method for the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals from Bacterial Cellulose, BC. A two-step processes is considered: (1) partial depolymerization of Bacterial Cellulose (DP-BC) under ultrasonic conditions; (2) extraction of crystalline regions (BC-NC) by treatment with diluted HCl catalyzed by metal chlorides (MnCl2 and FeCl3.6H2O) under microwave irradiation. The effect of ultrasonic time and reactant and catalyst concentrations on the index crystallinity (CrI), chemical structure, thermal properties, and surface morphology of DP-BC and BC-NC were evaluated. The results indicated that the ultrasonic treatment induced depolymerization of BC characterized by an increase of the CrI. The microwave assisted by MnCl2-catalyzed mild acid hydrolysis enhanced the removal of the amorphous regions, yielding BC-NC. A chemical structure analysis demonstrated that the chemical structures of DP-BC and BC-NC remained unchanged after the ultrasonic treatment and MnCl2-catalyzed acid hydrolysis process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials to Enhance Food Quality, Safety, and Health Impact)
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Open AccessArticle New Antioxidant Multilayer Packaging with Nanoselenium to Enhance the Shelf-Life of Market Food Products
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100837
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
A flexible multilayer with selenium nanoparticles incorporated has been used to build an antioxidant packaging. The oxidation of hazelnuts, walnuts, and potato chips was tested at laboratory scale. Hexanal released by the nuts, fatty acids oxidation study, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), and [...] Read more.
A flexible multilayer with selenium nanoparticles incorporated has been used to build an antioxidant packaging. The oxidation of hazelnuts, walnuts, and potato chips was tested at laboratory scale. Hexanal released by the nuts, fatty acids oxidation study, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), and tasting were compared to study the oxidation of foods packaged with this antioxidant packaging. Finally, TBARS method in combination with tasting were selected due to their simplicity and accuracy. It was found that hazelnuts packaged in nanoSe active bags released around 20% less malonaldehyde (MDA) than the blanks. In the case of the walnuts, the active ones released 25% less MDA than the blanks. As for potato chips, the improvement was around 22%. Finally, an industrial study was done. Cooked ham, chicken, and a ready-to-eat vegetable mixture seasoned with butter were industrially packaged with the new antioxidant material and improvements higher than 25% were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials to Enhance Food Quality, Safety, and Health Impact)
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Open AccessArticle Electrospun Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol)/Graphene Nanoplatelets Composites of Interest in Intelligent Food Packaging Applications
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100745
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
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Abstract
Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were synthetized from graphite powder and, thereafter, embedded in poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH) fibers by electrospinning in the 0.1–2 wt.-% range. The morphological, chemical, and thermal characterization performed on the electrospun nanocomposite fibers mats revealed that the GNPs were [...] Read more.
Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were synthetized from graphite powder and, thereafter, embedded in poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH) fibers by electrospinning in the 0.1–2 wt.-% range. The morphological, chemical, and thermal characterization performed on the electrospun nanocomposite fibers mats revealed that the GNPs were efficiently dispersed and rolled along the EVOH fibrilar matrix up to contents of 0.5 wt.-%. Additionally, the dielectric behavior of the nanocomposite fibers was evaluated as a function of the frequency range and GNPs content. The obtained results indicated that their dielectric constant rapidly decreased with the frequency increase and only increased at low GNPs loadings while the nanocomposite fiber mats became electrically conductive, with the maximum at 0.5 wt.-% GNPs content. Finally, the electrospun mats were subjected to a thermal post-treatment and dark films with a high contact transparency were obtained, suggesting that the nanocomposites can be used either in a nonwoven fibers form or in a continuous film form. This study demonstrates the potential of electrospinning as a promising technology to produce GNPs-containing materials with high electrical conductivity that can be of potential interest in intelligent packaging applications as “smart” labels or tags. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials to Enhance Food Quality, Safety, and Health Impact)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Electrospun Oxygen Scavenging Films of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) Containing Palladium Nanoparticles for Active Packaging Applications
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070469
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 18 June 2018 / Accepted: 21 June 2018 / Published: 27 June 2018
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Abstract
This paper reports on the development and characterization of oxygen scavenging films made of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) containing palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) prepared by electrospinning followed by annealing treatment at 160 °C. The PdNPs were modified with the intention to optimize their dispersion and distribution [...] Read more.
This paper reports on the development and characterization of oxygen scavenging films made of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) containing palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) prepared by electrospinning followed by annealing treatment at 160 °C. The PdNPs were modified with the intention to optimize their dispersion and distribution in PHB by means of two different surfactants permitted for food contact applications, i.e., hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). Analysis of the morphology and characterization of the chemical, thermal, mechanical, and water and limonene vapor barrier properties and the oxygen scavenging capacity of the various PHB materials were carried out. From the results, it was seen that a better dispersion and distribution was obtained using CTAB as the dispersing aid. As a result, the PHB/PdNP nanocomposites containing CTAB provided also the best oxygen scavenging performance. These films offer a significant potential as new active coating or interlayer systems for application in the design of novel active food packaging structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials to Enhance Food Quality, Safety, and Health Impact)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Risk Analysis of Cellulose Nanomaterials by Inhalation: Current State of Science
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030337
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 February 2019 / Published: 2 March 2019
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Abstract
Cellulose nanomaterials (CNs) are emerging advanced materials with many unique properties and growing commercial significance. A life-cycle risk assessment and environmental health and safety roadmap identified potential risks from inhalation of powdered CNs in the workplace as a key gap in our understanding [...] Read more.
Cellulose nanomaterials (CNs) are emerging advanced materials with many unique properties and growing commercial significance. A life-cycle risk assessment and environmental health and safety roadmap identified potential risks from inhalation of powdered CNs in the workplace as a key gap in our understanding of safety and recommended addressing this data gap to advance the safe and successful commercialization of these materials. Here, we (i) summarize the currently available published literature for its contribution to our current understanding of CN inhalation hazard and (ii) evaluate the quality of the studies for risk assessment purposes using published study evaluation tools for nanomaterials to assess the weight of evidence provided. Our analysis found that the quality of the available studies is generally inadequate for risk assessment purposes but is improving over time. There have been some advances in knowledge about the effects of short-term inhalation exposures of CN. The most recent in vivo studies suggest that short-term exposure to CNs results in transient inflammation, similarly to other poorly soluble, low toxicity dusts such as conventional cellulose, but is markedly different from fibers with known toxicity such as certain types of multiwalled carbon nanotubes or asbestos. However, several data gaps remain, and there is still a lack of understanding of the effects from long-term, low-dose exposures that represent realistic workplace conditions, essential for a quantitative assessment of potential health risk. Therefore, taking precautions when handling dry forms of CNs to avoid dust inhalation exposure is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials to Enhance Food Quality, Safety, and Health Impact)
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Open AccessReview Potential of Nanomaterial Applications in Dietary Supplements and Foods for Special Medical Purposes
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020296
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
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Abstract
Dietary supplements and foods for special medical purposes are special medical products classified according to the legal basis. They are regulated, for example, by the European Food Safety Authority and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, as well as by various national regulations [...] Read more.
Dietary supplements and foods for special medical purposes are special medical products classified according to the legal basis. They are regulated, for example, by the European Food Safety Authority and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, as well as by various national regulations issued most frequently by the Ministry of Health and/or the Ministry of Agriculture of particular countries around the world. They constitute a concentrated source of vitamins, minerals, polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants or other compounds with a nutritional or physiological effect contained in the food/feed, alone or in combination, intended for direct consumption in small measured amounts. As nanotechnology provides “a new dimension” accompanied with new or modified properties conferred to many current materials, it is widely used for the production of a new generation of drug formulations, and it is also used in the food industry and even in various types of nutritional supplements. These nanoformulations of supplements are being prepared especially with the purpose to improve bioavailability, protect active ingredients against degradation, or reduce side effects. This contribution comprehensively summarizes the current state of the research focused on nanoformulated human and veterinary dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, and functional foods for special medical purposes, their particular applications in various food products and drinks as well as the most important related guidelines, regulations and directives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials to Enhance Food Quality, Safety, and Health Impact)
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Open AccessReview Optical Sensors Based on II-VI Quantum Dots
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020192
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
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Abstract
Fundamentals of quantum dots (QDs) sensing phenomena show the predominance of these fluorophores over standard organic dyes, mainly because of their unique optical properties such as sharp and tunable emission spectra, high emission quantum yield and broad absorption. Moreover, they also indicate no [...] Read more.
Fundamentals of quantum dots (QDs) sensing phenomena show the predominance of these fluorophores over standard organic dyes, mainly because of their unique optical properties such as sharp and tunable emission spectra, high emission quantum yield and broad absorption. Moreover, they also indicate no photo bleaching and can be also grown as no blinking emitters. Due to these properties, QDs may be used e.g., for multiplex testing of the analyte by simultaneously detecting multiple or very weak signals. Physico-chemical mechanisms used for analyte detection, like analyte stimulated QDs aggregation, nonradiative Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) exhibit a number of QDs, which can be applied in sensors. Quantum dots-based sensors find use in the detection of ions, organic compounds (e.g., proteins, sugars, volatile substances) as well as bacteria and viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials to Enhance Food Quality, Safety, and Health Impact)
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Nanomaterials EISSN 2079-4991 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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