Applications of Nanomaterials in Biomedical Imaging and Cancer Therapy II

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 May 2024) | Viewed by 22567

Special Issue Editor

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 1P5, Canada
Interests: artificial intelligence; machine learning; computer simulation; high-performance computing; cloud computing; big data; radiotherapy; health care; nanotechnology; image processing; radiation treatment planning; chatbot; radiation dosimetry; DNA damage; radiobiological modelling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Our first successful Special Issue entitled “Application of Nanomaterials in Biomedical Imaging and Cancer Therapy” received a collection of excellent works on applying nanomaterials and nanotechnology in biomedical imaging and cancer therapy. We recognized that it is timely and necessary to have a platform to share researchers’ studies in order to keep pace with the recent technological changes in nanomaterials and nanotechnology. Therefore, we are pleased to invite you to submit your research works focusing on studies using nanomaterials as an enhancer in targeted therapy and precise imaging. This includes but is not limited to those presenting the developments in imaging agents and enhancers in cancer therapy, experimental results from cellular, preclinical and clinical studies, and computational methods/simulations of the interaction between the nanomaterials and cell/DNA targets. This Special Issue aims to continue our previous Issue and welcomes original research articles, technical reports and reviews.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. James Chow
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • synthesis of nanomaterials
  • nanotechnology
  • targeted therapy
  • medical imaging
  • computer modeling
  • functionalized nanomaterials
  • radiosensitizer

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

15 pages, 3802 KiB  
Article
Magnetic Particle Imaging-Guided Thermal Simulations for Magnetic Particle Hyperthermia
by Hayden Carlton, Nageshwar Arepally, Sean Healy, Anirudh Sharma, Sarah Ptashnik, Maureen Schickel, Matt Newgren, Patrick Goodwill, Anilchandra Attaluri and Robert Ivkov
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(12), 1059; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14121059 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 851
Abstract
Magnetic particle hyperthermia (MPH) enables the direct heating of solid tumors with alternating magnetic fields (AMFs). One challenge with MPH is the unknown particle distribution in tissue after injection. Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) can measure the nanoparticle content and distribution in tissue after [...] Read more.
Magnetic particle hyperthermia (MPH) enables the direct heating of solid tumors with alternating magnetic fields (AMFs). One challenge with MPH is the unknown particle distribution in tissue after injection. Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) can measure the nanoparticle content and distribution in tissue after delivery. The objective of this study was to develop a clinically translatable protocol that incorporates MPI data into finite element calculations for simulating tissue temperatures during MPH. To verify the protocol, we conducted MPH experiments in tumor-bearing mouse cadavers. Five 8–10-week-old female BALB/c mice bearing subcutaneous 4T1 tumors were anesthetized and received intratumor injections of Synomag®-S90 nanoparticles. Immediately following injection, the mice were euthanized and imaged, and the tumors were heated with an AMF. We used the Mimics Innovation Suite to create a 3D mesh of the tumor from micro-computerized tomography data and spatial index MPI to generate a scaled heating function for the heat transfer calculations. The processed imaging data were incorporated into a finite element solver, COMSOL Multiphysics®. The upper and lower bounds of the simulated tumor temperatures for all five cadavers demonstrated agreement with the experimental temperature measurements, thus verifying the protocol. These results demonstrate the utility of MPI to guide predictive thermal calculations for MPH treatment planning. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 3500 KiB  
Article
Magnet-Guided Temozolomide and Ferucarbotran Loaded Nanoparticles to Enhance Therapeutic Efficacy in Glioma Model
by Reju George Thomas, Subin Kim, Thi-Anh-Thuy Tran, Young Hee Kim, Raveena Nagareddy, Tae-Young Jung, Seul Kee Kim and Yong Yeon Jeong
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(11), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14110939 - 27 May 2024
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Background. The aim of the study was to synthesize liposomal nanoparticles loaded with temozolomide and ferucarbotran (LTF) and to evaluate the theranostic effect of LTF in the glioma model. Methods. We synthesized an LTF that could pass through the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) [...] Read more.
Background. The aim of the study was to synthesize liposomal nanoparticles loaded with temozolomide and ferucarbotran (LTF) and to evaluate the theranostic effect of LTF in the glioma model. Methods. We synthesized an LTF that could pass through the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) and localize in brain tumor tissue with the help of magnet guidance. We examined the chemical characteristics. Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity studies were conducted in vitro. A biodistribution and tumor inhibition study was conduted using an in vivo glioma model. Results. The particle size and surface charge of LTF show 108 nm and −38 mV, respectively. Additionally, the presence of ferucarbotran significantly increased the contrast agent effect of glioma compared to the control group in MR imaging. Magnet-guided LTF significantly reduced the tumor size compared to control and other groups. Furthermore, compared to the control group, our results demonstrate a significant inhibition in brain tumor size and an increase in lifespan. Conclusions. These findings suggest that the LTF with magnetic guidance represents a novel approach to address current obstacles, such as BBB penetration of nanoparticles and drug resistance. Magnet-guided LTF is able to enhance therapeutic efficacy in mouse brain glioma. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 7023 KiB  
Article
Physico-Chemical Properties of CdTe/Glutathione Quantum Dots Obtained by Microwave Irradiation for Use in Monoclonal Antibody and Biomarker Testing
by M. A. Ruiz-Robles, Francisco J. Solís-Pomar, Gabriela Travieso Aguilar, Maykel Márquez Mijares, Raine Garrido Arteaga, Olivia Martínez Armenteros, C. D. Gutiérrez-Lazos, Eduardo G. Pérez-Tijerina and Abel Fundora Cruz
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(8), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14080684 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 873
Abstract
In this report, we present the results on the physicochemical characterization of cadmium telluride quantum dots (QDs) stabilized with glutathione and prepared by optimizing the synthesis conditions. An excellent control of emissions and the composition of the nanocrystal surface for its potential application [...] Read more.
In this report, we present the results on the physicochemical characterization of cadmium telluride quantum dots (QDs) stabilized with glutathione and prepared by optimizing the synthesis conditions. An excellent control of emissions and the composition of the nanocrystal surface for its potential application in monoclonal antibody and biomarker testing was achieved. Two samples (QDYellow, QDOrange, corresponding to their emission colors) were analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), and their hydrodynamic sizes were 6.7 nm and 19.4 nm, respectively. Optical characterization by UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy showed excitonic peaks at 517 nm and 554 nm. Photoluminescence spectroscopy indicated that the samples have a maximum intensity emission at 570 and 606 nm, respectively, within the visible range from yellow to orange. Infrared spectroscopy showed vibrational modes corresponding to the functional groups OH-C-H, C-N, C=C, C-O, C-OH, and COOH, which allows for the formation of functionalized QDs for the manufacture of biomarkers. In addition, the hydrodynamic radius, zeta potential, and approximate molecular weight were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), electrophoretic light scattering (ELS), and static light scattering (SLS) techniques. Size dispersion and the structure of nanoparticles was obtained by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and by X-ray diffraction. In the same way, we calculated the concentration of Cd2+ ions expressed in mg/L by using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). In addition to the characterization of the nanoparticles, the labeling of murine myeloid cells was carried out with both samples of quantum dots, where it was demonstrated that quantum dots can diffuse into these cells and connect mostly with the cell nucleus. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2650 KiB  
Article
An Optimized Method for Evaluating the Potential Gd-Nanoparticle Dose Enhancement Produced by Electronic Brachytherapy
by Melani Fuentealba, Alejandro Ferreira, Apolo Salgado, Christopher Vergara, Sergio Díez and Mauricio Santibáñez
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(5), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14050430 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 861
Abstract
This work reports an optimized method to experimentally quantify the Gd-nanoparticle dose enhancement generated by electronic brachytherapy. The dose enhancement was evaluated considering energy beams of 50 kVp and 70 kVp, determining the Gd-nanoparticle concentration ranges that would optimize the process for each [...] Read more.
This work reports an optimized method to experimentally quantify the Gd-nanoparticle dose enhancement generated by electronic brachytherapy. The dose enhancement was evaluated considering energy beams of 50 kVp and 70 kVp, determining the Gd-nanoparticle concentration ranges that would optimize the process for each energy. The evaluation was performed using delaminated radiochromic films and a Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) phantom covered on one side by a thin 2.5 μm Mylar filter acting as an interface between the region with Gd suspension and the radiosensitive film substrate. The results for the 70 kVp beam quality showed dose increments of 6±6%, 22±7%, and 9±7% at different concentrations of 10, 20, and 30 mg/mL, respectively, verifying the competitive mechanisms of enhancement and attenuation. For the 50 kVp beam quality, no increase in dose was recorded for the concentrations studied, indicating that the major contribution to enhancement is from the K-edge interaction. In order to separate the contributions of attenuation and enhancement to the total dose, measurements were replicated with a 12 μm Mylar filter, obtaining a dose enhancement attributable to the K-edge of 29±7% and 34±7% at 20 and 30 mg/mL, respectively, evidencing a significant additional dose proportional to the Gd concentration. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1470 KiB  
Article
MRI Detection and Therapeutic Enhancement of Ferumoxytol Internalization in Glioblastoma Cells
by Michael S. Petronek, Nahom Teferi, Chu-Yu Lee, Vincent A. Magnotta and Bryan G. Allen
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(2), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14020189 - 13 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1293
Abstract
Recently, the FDA-approved iron oxide nanoparticle, ferumoxytol, has been found to enhance the efficacy of pharmacological ascorbate (AscH) in treating glioblastoma, as AscH reduces the Fe3+ sites in the nanoparticle core. Given the iron oxidation state specificity of T2* [...] Read more.
Recently, the FDA-approved iron oxide nanoparticle, ferumoxytol, has been found to enhance the efficacy of pharmacological ascorbate (AscH) in treating glioblastoma, as AscH reduces the Fe3+ sites in the nanoparticle core. Given the iron oxidation state specificity of T2* relaxation mapping, this study aims to investigate the ability of T2* relaxation to monitor the reduction of ferumoxytol by AscH with respect to its in vitro therapeutic enhancement. This study employed an in vitro glioblastoma MRI model system to investigate the chemical interaction of ferumoxytol with T2* mapping. Lipofectamine was utilized to facilitate ferumoxytol internalization and assess intracellular versus extracellular chemistry. In vitro T2* mapping successfully detected an AscH-mediated reduction of ferumoxytol (25.6 ms versus 2.8 ms for FMX alone). The T2* relaxation technique identified the release of Fe2+ from ferumoxytol by AscH in glioblastoma cells. However, the high iron content of ferumoxytol limited T2* ability to differentiate between the external and internal reduction of ferumoxytol by AscH (ΔT2* = +839% for external FMX and +1112% for internal FMX reduction). Notably, the internalization of ferumoxytol significantly enhances its ability to promote AscH toxicity (dose enhancement ratio for extracellular FMX = 1.16 versus 1.54 for intracellular FMX). These data provide valuable insights into the MR-based nanotheranostic application of ferumoxytol and AscH therapy for glioblastoma management. Future developmental efforts, such as FMX surface modifications, may be warranted to enhance this approach further. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2644 KiB  
Article
Radiofluorination of an Anionic, Azide-Functionalized Teroligomer by Copper-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition
by Barbara Wenzel, Maximilian Schmid, Rodrigo Teodoro, Rareş-Petru Moldovan, Thu Hang Lai, Franziska Mitrach, Klaus Kopka, Björn Fischer, Michaela Schulz-Siegmund, Peter Brust and Michael C. Hacker
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(14), 2095; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13142095 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1296
Abstract
This study describes the synthesis, radiofluorination and purification of an anionic amphiphilic teroligomer developed as a stabilizer for siRNA-loaded calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaP-NPs). As the stabilizing amphiphile accumulates on nanoparticle surfaces, the fluorine-18-labeled polymer should enable to track the distribution of the CaP-NPs [...] Read more.
This study describes the synthesis, radiofluorination and purification of an anionic amphiphilic teroligomer developed as a stabilizer for siRNA-loaded calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaP-NPs). As the stabilizing amphiphile accumulates on nanoparticle surfaces, the fluorine-18-labeled polymer should enable to track the distribution of the CaP-NPs in brain tumors by positron emission tomography after application by convection-enhanced delivery. At first, an unmodified teroligomer was synthesized with a number average molecular weight of 4550 ± 20 Da by free radical polymerization of a defined composition of methoxy-PEG-monomethacrylate, tetradecyl acrylate and maleic anhydride. Subsequent derivatization of anhydrides with azido-TEG-amine provided an azido-functionalized polymer precursor (o14PEGMA-N3) for radiofluorination. The 18F-labeling was accomplished through the copper-catalyzed cycloaddition of o14PEGMA-N3 with diethylene glycol–alkyne-substituted heteroaromatic prosthetic group [18F]2, which was synthesized with a radiochemical yield (RCY) of about 38% within 60 min using a radiosynthesis module. The 18F-labeled polymer [18F]fluoro-o14PEGMA was obtained after a short reaction time of 2–3 min by using CuSO4/sodium ascorbate at 90 °C. Purification was performed by solid-phase extraction on an anion-exchange cartridge followed by size-exclusion chromatography to obtain [18F]fluoro-o14PEGMA with a high radiochemical purity and an RCY of about 15%. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 4802 KiB  
Article
Total Bio-Based Material for Drug Delivery and Iron Chelation to Fight Cancer through Antimicrobial Activity
by Vincenzo Patamia, Chiara Zagni, Roberto Fiorenza, Virginia Fuochi, Sandro Dattilo, Paolo Maria Riccobene, Pio Maria Furneri, Giuseppe Floresta and Antonio Rescifina
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(14), 2036; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13142036 - 10 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1958
Abstract
Bacterial involvement in cancer’s development, along with their impact on therapeutic interventions, has been increasingly recognized. This has prompted the development of novel strategies to disrupt essential biological processes in microbial cells. Among these approaches, metal-chelating agents have gained attention for their ability [...] Read more.
Bacterial involvement in cancer’s development, along with their impact on therapeutic interventions, has been increasingly recognized. This has prompted the development of novel strategies to disrupt essential biological processes in microbial cells. Among these approaches, metal-chelating agents have gained attention for their ability to hinder microbial metal metabolism and impede critical reactions. Nanotechnology has also contributed to the antibacterial field by offering various nanomaterials, including antimicrobial nanoparticles with potential therapeutic and drug-delivery applications. Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are naturally occurring tubular clay nanomaterials composed of aluminosilicate kaolin sheets rolled multiple times. The aluminum and siloxane groups on the surface of HNTs enable hydrogen bonding with biomaterials, making them versatile in various domains, such as environmental sciences, wastewater treatment, nanoelectronics, catalytic studies, and cosmetics. This study aimed to create an antibacterial material by combining the unique properties of halloysite nanotubes with the iron-chelating capability of kojic acid. A nucleophilic substitution reaction involving the hydroxyl groups on the nanotubes’ surface was employed to functionalize the material using kojic acid. The resulting material was characterized using infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and its iron-chelating ability was assessed. Furthermore, the potential for drug loading—specifically, with resveratrol and curcumin—was evaluated through ultraviolet (UV) analysis. The antibacterial assay was evaluated following CLSI guidelines. The results suggested that the HNTs–kojic acid formulation had great antibacterial activity against all tested pathogens. The outcome of this work yielded a novel bio-based material with dual functionality as a drug carrier and an antimicrobial agent. This innovative approach holds promise for addressing challenges related to bacterial infections, antibiotic resistance, and the development of advanced therapeutic interventions. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

20 pages, 9147 KiB  
Article
Exploiting Blood Transport Proteins as Carborane Supramolecular Vehicles for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy
by Tainah Dorina Marforio, Edoardo Jun Mattioli, Francesco Zerbetto and Matteo Calvaresi
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1770; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111770 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
Carboranes are promising agents for applications in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), but their hydrophobicity prevents their use in physiological environments. Here, by using reverse docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we identified blood transport proteins as candidate carriers of carboranes. Hemoglobin showed [...] Read more.
Carboranes are promising agents for applications in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), but their hydrophobicity prevents their use in physiological environments. Here, by using reverse docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we identified blood transport proteins as candidate carriers of carboranes. Hemoglobin showed a higher binding affinity for carboranes than transthyretin and human serum albumin (HSA), which are well-known carborane-binding proteins. Myoglobin, ceruloplasmin, sex hormone-binding protein, lactoferrin, plasma retinol-binding protein, thyroxine-binding globulin, corticosteroid-binding globulin and afamin have a binding affinity comparable to transthyretin/HSA. The carborane@protein complexes are stable in water and characterized by favorable binding energy. The driving force in the carborane binding is represented by the formation of hydrophobic interactions with aliphatic amino acids and BH-π and CH-π interactions with aromatic amino acids. Dihydrogen bonds, classical hydrogen bonds and surfactant-like interactions also assist the binding. These results (i) identify the plasma proteins responsible for binding carborane upon their intravenous administration, and (ii) suggest an innovative formulation for carboranes based on the formation of a carborane@protein complex prior to the administration. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2770 KiB  
Article
Facile One-Pot Green Synthesis of Magneto-Luminescent Bimetallic Nanocomposites with Potential as Dual Imaging Agent
by Radek Ostruszka, Denisa Půlpánová, Tomáš Pluháček, Ondřej Tomanec, Petr Novák, Daniel Jirák and Karolína Šišková
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(6), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13061027 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
Nanocomposites serving as dual (bimodal) probes have great potential in the field of bio-imaging. Here, we developed a simple one-pot synthesis for the reproducible generation of new luminescent and magnetically active bimetallic nanocomposites. The developed one-pot synthesis was performed in a sequential manner [...] Read more.
Nanocomposites serving as dual (bimodal) probes have great potential in the field of bio-imaging. Here, we developed a simple one-pot synthesis for the reproducible generation of new luminescent and magnetically active bimetallic nanocomposites. The developed one-pot synthesis was performed in a sequential manner and obeys the principles of green chemistry. Briefly, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was exploited to uptake Au (III) and Fe (II)/Fe (III) ions simultaneously. Then, Au (III) ions were transformed to luminescent Au nanoclusters embedded in BSA (AuNCs-BSA) and majority of Fe ions were bio-embedded into superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) by the alkalization of the reaction medium. The resulting nanocomposites, AuNCs-BSA-SPIONs, represent a bimodal nanoprobe. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging visualized nanostructures with sizes in units of nanometres that were arranged into aggregates. Mössbauer spectroscopy gave direct evidence regarding SPION presence. The potential applicability of these bimodal nanoprobes was verified by the measurement of their luminescent features as well as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and relaxometry. It appears that these magneto-luminescent nanocomposites were able to compete with commercial MRI contrast agents as MR displays the beneficial property of bright luminescence of around 656 nm (fluorescence quantum yield of 6.2 ± 0.2%). The biocompatibility of the AuNCs-BSA-SPIONs nanocomposite has been tested and its long-term stability validated. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 1533 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Dosimetric Effect of Bone Scatter on Nanoparticle-Enhanced Orthovoltage Radiotherapy: A Monte Carlo Phantom Study
by Afia Sadiq and James C. L. Chow
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(17), 2991; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12172991 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1429
Abstract
In nanoparticle (NP)-enhanced orthovoltage radiotherapy, bone scatter affected dose enhancement at the skin lesion in areas such as the forehead, chest wall, and knee. Since each of these treatment sites have a bone, such as the frontal bone, rib, or patella, underneath the [...] Read more.
In nanoparticle (NP)-enhanced orthovoltage radiotherapy, bone scatter affected dose enhancement at the skin lesion in areas such as the forehead, chest wall, and knee. Since each of these treatment sites have a bone, such as the frontal bone, rib, or patella, underneath the skin lesion and this bone is not considered in dose delivery calculations, uncertainty arises in the evaluation of dose enhancement with the addition of NPs in radiotherapy. To investigate the impact of neglecting the effect of bone scatter, Monte Carlo simulations based on heterogeneous phantoms were carried out to determine and compare the dose enhancement ratio (DER), when a bone was and was not present underneath the skin lesion. For skin lesions with added NPs, Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the DER values using different elemental NPs (gold, platinum, silver, iodine, as well as iron oxide), in varying NP concentrations (3–40 mg/mL), at two different photon beam energies (105 and 220 kVp). It was found that DER values at the skin lesion increased with the presence of bone when there was a higher atomic number of NPs, a higher NP concentration, and a lower photon beam energy. When comparing DER values with and without bone, using the same NP elements, NP concentration, and beam energy, differences were found in the range 0.04–3.55%, and a higher difference was found when the NP concentration increased. By considering the uncertainty in the DER calculation, the effect of bone scatter became significant to the dose enhancement (>2%) when the NP concentration was higher than 18 mg/mL. This resulted in an underestimation of dose enhancement at the skin lesion, when the bone underneath the tumour was neglected during orthovoltage radiotherapy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

23 pages, 2534 KiB  
Review
Metal-Polymer Nanoconjugates Application in Cancer Imaging and Therapy
by André Q. Figueiredo, Carolina F. Rodrigues, Natanael Fernandes, Duarte de Melo-Diogo, Ilídio J. Correia and André F. Moreira
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(18), 3166; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12183166 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2680
Abstract
Metallic-based nanoparticles present a unique set of physicochemical properties that support their application in different fields, such as electronics, medical diagnostics, and therapeutics. Particularly, in cancer therapy, the plasmonic resonance, magnetic behavior, X-ray attenuation, and radical oxygen species generation capacity displayed by metallic [...] Read more.
Metallic-based nanoparticles present a unique set of physicochemical properties that support their application in different fields, such as electronics, medical diagnostics, and therapeutics. Particularly, in cancer therapy, the plasmonic resonance, magnetic behavior, X-ray attenuation, and radical oxygen species generation capacity displayed by metallic nanoparticles make them highly promising theragnostic solutions. Nevertheless, metallic-based nanoparticles are often associated with some toxicological issues, lack of colloidal stability, and establishment of off-target interactions. Therefore, researchers have been exploiting the combination of metallic nanoparticles with other materials, inorganic (e.g., silica) and/or organic (e.g., polymers). In terms of biological performance, metal-polymer conjugation can be advantageous for improving biocompatibility, colloidal stability, and tumor specificity. In this review, the application of metallic-polymer nanoconjugates/nanohybrids as a multifunctional all-in-one solution for cancer therapy will be summarized, focusing on the physicochemical properties that make metallic nanomaterials capable of acting as imaging and/or therapeutic agents. Then, an overview of the main advantages of metal-polymer conjugation as well as the most common structural arrangements will be provided. Moreover, the application of metallic-polymer nanoconjugates/nanohybrids made of gold, iron, copper, and other metals in cancer therapy will be discussed, in addition to an outlook of the current solution in clinical trials. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

21 pages, 2060 KiB  
Review
Nanoparticle-Based Therapeutics to Overcome Obstacles in the Tumor Microenvironment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
by Yuanfei Lu, Na Feng, Yongzhong Du and Risheng Yu
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(16), 2832; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12162832 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2332
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still a main health concern around the world, with a rising incidence and high mortality rate. The tumor-promoting components of the tumor microenvironment (TME) play a vital role in the development and metastasis of HCC. TME-targeted therapies have recently [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still a main health concern around the world, with a rising incidence and high mortality rate. The tumor-promoting components of the tumor microenvironment (TME) play a vital role in the development and metastasis of HCC. TME-targeted therapies have recently drawn increasing interest in the treatment of HCC. However, the short medication retention time in TME limits the efficiency of TME modulating strategies. The nanoparticles can be elaborately designed as needed to specifically target the tumor-promoting components in TME. In this regard, the use of nanomedicine to modulate TME components by delivering drugs with protection and prolonged circulation time in a spatiotemporal manner has shown promising potential. In this review, we briefly introduce the obstacles of TME and highlight the updated information on nanoparticles that modulate these obstacles. Furthermore, the present challenges and future prospects of TME modulating nanomedicines will be briefly discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2511 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Functionalized Nanoparticles in Cancer Theranostics
by Sarkar Siddique and James C. L. Chow
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(16), 2826; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12162826 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 55 | Viewed by 3969
Abstract
Cancer theranostics is the combination of diagnosis and therapeutic approaches for cancer, which is essential in personalized cancer treatment. The aims of the theranostics application of nanoparticles in cancer detection and therapy are to reduce delays in treatment and hence improve patient care. [...] Read more.
Cancer theranostics is the combination of diagnosis and therapeutic approaches for cancer, which is essential in personalized cancer treatment. The aims of the theranostics application of nanoparticles in cancer detection and therapy are to reduce delays in treatment and hence improve patient care. Recently, it has been found that the functionalization of nanoparticles can improve the efficiency, performance, specificity and sensitivity of the structure, and increase stability in the body and acidic environment. Moreover, functionalized nanoparticles have been found to possess a remarkable theranostic ability and have revolutionized cancer treatment. Each cancer treatment modality, such as MRI-guided gene therapy, MRI-guided thermal therapy, magnetic hyperthermia treatment, MRI-guided chemotherapy, immunotherapy, photothermal and photodynamic therapy, has its strengths and weaknesses, and combining modalities allows for a better platform for improved cancer control. This is why cancer theranostics have been investigated thoroughly in recent years and enabled by functionalized nanoparticles. In this topical review, we look at the recent advances in cancer theranostics using functionalized nanoparticles. Through understanding and updating the development of nanoparticle-based cancer theranostics, we find out the future challenges and perspectives in this novel type of cancer treatment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop