Editorial Board Members’ Collection Series: New Trends in Inorganic Nanoparticles and Composites from Preparation to Applications

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Materials and Metal-Organic Frameworks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 May 2024 | Viewed by 27209

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
2. Institute for Advanced Research in Chemical Sciences (IAdChem), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
3. Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Interests: nanomaterials; 2D materials; porous materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
Interests: hydrothermal; continuous flow; reactor design; scale up
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue on Nanomaterials will select pioneer scientific contributions focused on the production methods and properties of new types of inorganic nanoparticles and composites thereof. We expect to collect contributions from both academia and industry to enhance the perspectives on this issue. The aim is to outline a current overview of new trends in inorganic nanoparticles, from preparation aspects, processability, and properties to potential applications. Novel inorganic naoparticles will include nanowires, 2D materials based on MOFs, CPs, Xenes, MXenes, metal oxydes/hydroxides, and perovskites, among others.

We specifically invite research works on the following topics:

  • Inorganic nanomaterials for water: treatment and sensing;
  • Inorganic nanomaterials for green energy: electrical storage and generation, catalysis, molecular separation;
  • New trends in the preparation of inorganic nanoparticles;
  • Processing aspects of inorganic nanoparticles: injet-printing, 3D printing, microfluidics, etc.;
  • Preparation and properties of porous inorganic nanoparticles: MOFs, zeolites, carbons, etc.;
  • Proof-of-concept experiments towards applications of inorganic nanoparticles.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Félix Zamora
Prof. Dr. Edward H. Lester
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • inorganic nanoparticles
  • porous inorganic nanoparticles
  • 2D materials
  • nanowires
  • advanced composites
  • applications in energy
  • water decontamination
  • sensing

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

15 pages, 3889 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction Reaction of TiO2 Nanotubes by Combining Surface Oxygen Vacancy Engineering and Zr Doping
by Maged N. Shaddad, Prabhakarn Arunachalam, Mahmoud S. Hezam, Saba A. Aladeemy, Mamduh J. Aljaafreh, Sharif Abu Alrub and Abdullah M. Al-Mayouf
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(4), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14040366 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 668
Abstract
This work examines the cooperative effect between Zr doping and oxygen vacancy engineering in anodized TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) for enhanced oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs). Zr dopant and annealing conditions significantly affected the electrocatalytic characteristics of grown TNTs. Zr doping results in Zr [...] Read more.
This work examines the cooperative effect between Zr doping and oxygen vacancy engineering in anodized TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) for enhanced oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs). Zr dopant and annealing conditions significantly affected the electrocatalytic characteristics of grown TNTs. Zr doping results in Zr4+ substituted for Ti4+ species, which indirectly creates oxygen vacancy donors that enhance charge transfer kinetics and reduce carrier recombination in TNT bulk. Moreover, oxygen vacancies promote the creation of unsaturated Ti3+(Zr3+) sites at the surface, which also boosts the ORR interfacial process. Annealing at reductive atmospheres (e.g., H2, vacuum) resulted in a larger increase in oxygen vacancies, which greatly enhanced the ORR activity. In comparison to bare TNTs, Zr doping and vacuum treatment (Zr:TNT–Vac) significantly improved the conductivity and activity of ORRs in alkaline media. The finding also provides selective hydrogen peroxide production by the electrochemical reduction of oxygen. Full article
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9 pages, 2782 KiB  
Communication
Pillar Growth by Focused Electron Beam-Induced Deposition Using a Bimetallic Precursor as Model System: High-Energy Fragmentation vs. Low-Energy Decomposition
by Robert Winkler, Michele Brugger-Hatzl, Fabrizio Porrati, David Kuhness, Thomas Mairhofer, Lukas M. Seewald, Gerald Kothleitner, Michael Huth, Harald Plank and Sven Barth
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(21), 2907; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13212907 - 06 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
Electron-induced fragmentation of the HFeCo3(CO)12 precursor allows direct-write fabrication of 3D nanostructures with metallic contents of up to >95 at %. While microstructure and composition determine the physical and functional properties of focused electron beam-induced deposits, they also provide fundamental [...] Read more.
Electron-induced fragmentation of the HFeCo3(CO)12 precursor allows direct-write fabrication of 3D nanostructures with metallic contents of up to >95 at %. While microstructure and composition determine the physical and functional properties of focused electron beam-induced deposits, they also provide fundamental insights into the decomposition process of precursors, as elaborated in this study based on EDX and TEM. The results provide solid information suggesting that different dominant fragmentation channels are active in single-spot growth processes for pillar formation. The use of the single source precursor provides a unique insight into high- and low-energy fragmentation channels being active in the same deposit formation process. Full article
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18 pages, 6752 KiB  
Article
Sintering, Mechanical and Optical Properties of TiB2 Composites with and without High-Energy Milling
by Simone Taraborelli, Simone Failla, Elisa Sani and Diletta Sciti
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(19), 2683; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13192683 - 30 Sep 2023
Viewed by 773
Abstract
TiB2 is a promising material for several fields including impact-resistant armor, wear-resistant coatings, cutting tools and crucibles given its physical, mechanical and chemical properties, especially due to the combination of high hardness and exceptional wear resistance. It is however very difficult to [...] Read more.
TiB2 is a promising material for several fields including impact-resistant armor, wear-resistant coatings, cutting tools and crucibles given its physical, mechanical and chemical properties, especially due to the combination of high hardness and exceptional wear resistance. It is however very difficult to sinter below 2000 °C, even under mechanical pressure; moreover, the low fracture toughness limits the applicability of the ceramic material. By using sintering additives, it is possible to improve the sintering process and increase the mechanical properties since the additives react with oxidized layers and form secondary phases. In this study, different preparation methods and various combinations of additives (B4C, Si3N4 and MoSi2) via hot pressing sintering have been explored. Through the synergy between optimized process and tailored composition, an almost fully dense material was obtained at 1700 °C with hardness of 24.4 ± 0.2 GPa and fracture toughness of 5.4 ± 0.2 MPa m1/2. However, the highest hardness (24.5 ± 0.2 GPa) and density values were obtained for only the high-energy-milled sample with WC-Co media, featuring a core–shell grain structure. Finally, optical properties for selected samples were measured, identifying the high-energy-milled TiB2 as the sample with the highest spectral selectivity α/ε and solar absorptance. Full article
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19 pages, 6791 KiB  
Article
Self-Organized Memristive Ensembles of Nanoparticles Below the Percolation Threshold: Switching Dynamics and Phase Field Description
by Renat T. Sibatov, Andrey I. Savitskiy, Pavel E. L’vov, Yulia O. Vasilevskaya and Evgeny P. Kitsyuk
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(14), 2039; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13142039 - 10 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 907
Abstract
Percolative memristive networks based on self-organized ensembles of silver and gold nanoparticles are synthesized and investigated. Using cyclic voltammetry, pulse and step voltage excitations, we study switching between memristive and capacitive states below the percolation threshold. The resulting systems demonstrate scale-free (self-similar) temporal [...] Read more.
Percolative memristive networks based on self-organized ensembles of silver and gold nanoparticles are synthesized and investigated. Using cyclic voltammetry, pulse and step voltage excitations, we study switching between memristive and capacitive states below the percolation threshold. The resulting systems demonstrate scale-free (self-similar) temporal dynamics, long-term correlations, and synaptic plasticity. The observed plasticity can be manipulated in a controlled manner. The simplified stochastic model of resistance dynamics in memristive networks is testified. A phase field model based on the Cahn–Hilliard and Ginzburg–Landau equations is proposed to describe the dynamics of a self-organized network during the dissolution of filaments. Full article
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17 pages, 4345 KiB  
Article
Amino-Termination of Silicon Carbide Nanoparticles
by Szabolcs Czene, Nikoletta Jegenyes, Olga Krafcsik, Sándor Lenk, Zsolt Czigány, Gábor Bortel, Katalin Kamarás, János Rohonczy, David Beke and Adam Gali
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(13), 1953; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13131953 - 27 Jun 2023
Viewed by 3063
Abstract
Silicon carbide nanoparticles (SiC NPs) are promising inorganic molecular-sized fluorescent biomarkers. It is imperative to develop methods to functionalize SiC NPs for certain biological applications. One possible route is to form amino groups on the surface, which can be readily used to attach [...] Read more.
Silicon carbide nanoparticles (SiC NPs) are promising inorganic molecular-sized fluorescent biomarkers. It is imperative to develop methods to functionalize SiC NPs for certain biological applications. One possible route is to form amino groups on the surface, which can be readily used to attach target biomolecules. Here, we report direct amino-termination of aqueous SiC NPs. We demonstrate the applicability of the amino-terminated SiC NPs by attaching bovine serum albumin as a model for functionalization. We monitor the optical properties of the SiC NPs in this process and find that the fluorescence intensity is very sensitive to surface termination. Our finding may have implications for a few nanometers sized SiC NPs containing paramagnetic color centers with optically read electron spins. Full article
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20 pages, 5134 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Silica Particle Size on the Mechanical Enhancement of Polymer Nanocomposites
by Evagelia Kontou, Angelos Christopoulos, Panagiota Koralli and Dionysios E. Mouzakis
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(6), 1095; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13061095 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2061
Abstract
In the present work, SiO2micro/nanocomposites based on poly-lactic acid (PLA) and an epoxy resin were prepared and experimentally studied. The silica particles were of varying sizes from the nano to micro scale at the same loading. The mechanical and thermomechanical performance, [...] Read more.
In the present work, SiO2micro/nanocomposites based on poly-lactic acid (PLA) and an epoxy resin were prepared and experimentally studied. The silica particles were of varying sizes from the nano to micro scale at the same loading. The mechanical and thermomechanical performance, in terms of dynamic mechanical analysis, of the composites prepared was studied in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finite element analysis (FEA) has been performed to analyze the Young’s modulus of the composites. A comparison with the results of a well-known analytical model, taking into account the filler’s size and the presence of interphase, was also performed. The general trend is that the reinforcement is higher for the nanosized particles, but it is important to conduct supplementary studies on the combined effect of the matrix type, the size of the nanoparticles, and the dispersion quality. A significant mechanical enhancement was obtained, particularly in the Resin/based nanocomposites. Full article
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12 pages, 2517 KiB  
Article
Asymmetrical Plasmon Distribution in Hybrid AuAg Hollow/Solid Coded Nanotubes
by Aziz Genç, Javier Patarroyo, Jordi Sancho-Parramon, Raul Arenal, Neus G. Bastús, Victor Puntes and Jordi Arbiol
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(6), 992; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13060992 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1491
Abstract
Morphological control at the nanoscale paves the way to fabricate nanostructures with desired plasmonic properties. In this study, we discuss the nanoengineering of plasmon resonances in 1D hollow nanostructures of two different AuAg nanotubes, including completely hollow nanotubes and hybrid nanotubes with solid [...] Read more.
Morphological control at the nanoscale paves the way to fabricate nanostructures with desired plasmonic properties. In this study, we discuss the nanoengineering of plasmon resonances in 1D hollow nanostructures of two different AuAg nanotubes, including completely hollow nanotubes and hybrid nanotubes with solid Ag and hollow AuAg segments. Spatially resolved plasmon mapping by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) revealed the presence of high order resonator-like modes and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modes in both nanotubes. The experimental findings accurately correlated with the boundary element method (BEM) simulations. Both experiments and simulations revealed that the plasmon resonances are intensely present inside the nanotubes due to plasmon hybridization. Based on the experimental and simulated results, we show that the novel hybrid AuAg nanotubes possess two significant coexisting features: (i) LSPRs are distinctively generated from the hollow and solid parts of the hybrid AuAg nanotube, which creates a way to control a broad range of plasmon resonances with one single nanostructure, and (ii) the periodicity of the high-order modes are disrupted due to the plasmon hybridization by the interaction of solid and hollow parts, resulting in an asymmetrical plasmon distribution in 1D nanostructures. The asymmetry could be modulated/engineered to control the coded plasmonic nanotubes. Full article
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11 pages, 3472 KiB  
Article
Room Temperature Polymorphism in WO3 Produced by Resistive Heating of W Wires
by Beatriz Rodríguez, Jaime Dolado, Jesus López-Sánchez, Pedro Hidalgo and Bianchi Méndez
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(5), 884; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13050884 - 26 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1442
Abstract
Polymorphous WO3 micro- and nanostructures have been synthesized by the controlled Joule heating of tungsten wires under ambient conditions in a few seconds. The growth on the wire surface is assisted by the electromigration process and it is further enhanced by the [...] Read more.
Polymorphous WO3 micro- and nanostructures have been synthesized by the controlled Joule heating of tungsten wires under ambient conditions in a few seconds. The growth on the wire surface is assisted by the electromigration process and it is further enhanced by the application of an external electric field through a pair of biased parallel copper plates. In this case, a high amount of WO3 material is also deposited on the copper electrodes, consisting of a few cm2 area. The temperature measurements of the W wire agrees with the values calculated by a finite element model, which has allowed us to establish the threshold density current to trigger the WO3 growth. The structural characterization of the produced microstructures accounts for the γ-WO3 (monoclinic I), which is the common stable phase at room temperature, along with low temperature phases, known as δ-WO3 (triclinic) on structures formed on the wire surface and ϵ-WO3 (monoclinic II) on material deposited on external electrodes. These phases allow for a high oxygen vacancies concentration, which is interesting in photocatalysis and sensing applications. The results could help to design experiments to produce oxide nanomaterials from other metal wires by this resistive heating method with scaling-up potential. Full article
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17 pages, 8432 KiB  
Article
Solid-State Synthesis of Cobalt/NCS Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Dual Chamber Microbial Fuel Cells
by Shaik Ashmath, Hyuk-Jun Kwon, Shaik Gouse Peera and Tae Gwan Lee
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(24), 4369; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12244369 - 07 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1530
Abstract
Due to the high cost of presently utilized Pt/C catalysts, a quick and sustainable synthesis of electrocatalysts made of cost-effective and earth-abundant metals is urgently needed. In this work, we demonstrated a mechanochemically synthesized cobalt nanoparticles supported on N and S doped carbons [...] Read more.
Due to the high cost of presently utilized Pt/C catalysts, a quick and sustainable synthesis of electrocatalysts made of cost-effective and earth-abundant metals is urgently needed. In this work, we demonstrated a mechanochemically synthesized cobalt nanoparticles supported on N and S doped carbons derived from a solid-state-reaction between zinc acetate and 2-amino thiazole as metal, organic ligand in presence of cobalt (Co) metal ions ZnxCox(C3H4N2S). Pyrolysis of the ZnxCox(C3H4N2S) produced, Co/NSC catalyst in which Co nanoparticles are evenly distributed on the nitrogen and sulfur doped carbon support. The Co/NSC catalyst have been characterized with various physical and electrochemical characterization techniques. The Co content in the ZnxCox(C3H4N2S) is carefully adjusted by varying the Co content and the optimized Co/NSC-3 catalyst is subjected to the oxygen reduction reaction in 0.1 M HClO4 electrolyte. The optimized Co/NSC-3 catalyst reveals acceptable ORR activity with the half-wave potential of ~0.63 V vs. RHE in acidic electrolytes. In addition, the Co/NSC-3 catalyst showed excellent stability with no loss in the ORR activity after 10,000 potential cycles. When applied as cathode catalysts in dual chamber microbial fuel cells, the Co/NCS catalyst delivered satisfactory volumetric power density in comparison with Pt/C. Full article
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13 pages, 1875 KiB  
Article
Alpha-Germanium Nanolayers for High-Performance Li-ion Batteries
by Laura Sierra, Carlos Gibaja, Iñigo Torres, Elena Salagre, Juan Ramón Avilés Moreno, Enrique G. Michel, Pilar Ocón and Félix Zamora
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(21), 3760; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12213760 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1513
Abstract
The exfoliation of tridimensional crystal structures has recently been considered a new source of bidimensional materials. The new approach offers the possibility of dramatically enlarging the library of bidimensional materials, but the number of nanolayers produced so far is still limited. Here, we [...] Read more.
The exfoliation of tridimensional crystal structures has recently been considered a new source of bidimensional materials. The new approach offers the possibility of dramatically enlarging the library of bidimensional materials, but the number of nanolayers produced so far is still limited. Here, we report for the first time the use of a new type of material, α-germanium nanolayers (2D α-Ge). The 2D α-Ge is obtained by exfoliating crystals of α-germanium in a simple one-step procedure assisted by wet ball-milling (gram-scale fabrication). The α-germanium nanolayers have been tested as anode material for high-performance LIBs. The results show excellent performance in semi-cell configuration with a high specific capacity of 1630 mAh g−1 for mass loading of 1 mg cm−2 at 0.1 C. The semi-cell was characterized by a constant current rate of 0.5 C during 400 cycles and different scan rates (0.1 C, 0.5 C, and 1 C). Interestingly, the structural characterization, including Raman spectroscopy, XRPD, and XPS, concludes that 2D α-Ge largely retains its crystallinity after continuous cycling. These results can be used to potentially apply these novel 2D germanium nanolayers to high-performance Li-ion batteries. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

17 pages, 1648 KiB  
Review
A Review of Analytical Techniques for the Determination and Separation of Silver Ions and Its Nanoparticles
by Miroslav Rievaj, Eva Culková, Damiána Šandorová, Jaroslav Durdiak, Renáta Bellová and Peter Tomčík
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(7), 1262; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13071262 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1930
Abstract
Many articles have already been published dealing with silver ions and its nanoparticles, but mostly from the environmental and toxicological point of view. This article is a review focused on the various analytical techniques and detection platforms used in the separation and determination [...] Read more.
Many articles have already been published dealing with silver ions and its nanoparticles, but mostly from the environmental and toxicological point of view. This article is a review focused on the various analytical techniques and detection platforms used in the separation and determination of mentioned above species, especially on the trace concentration level. Commonly used are optical methods because of their high sensitivity and easy automation. The separation methods are mainly used for the separation and preconcentration of silver particles. Their combination with other analytical techniques, mainly inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) leads to very low detection limits of analysis. The electrochemical methods are also powerful and perspective mainly because of the fabrication of new sensors designed for silver determination. All methods may be combined with each other to achieve a synergistic improvement of analytical parameters with an impact on sensitivity, selectivity and reliability. The paper comprises a review of all three types of analytical methods on the determination of trace quantities of silver ions and its nanoparticles. Full article
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17 pages, 1378 KiB  
Review
Role of Honey as a Bifunctional Reducing and Capping/Stabilizing Agent: Application for Silver and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles
by Norfarina Bahari, Norhashila Hashim, Khalina Abdan, Abdah Md Akim, Bernard Maringgal and Laith Al-Shdifat
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(7), 1244; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13071244 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2268
Abstract
The use of natural reducing and capping agents has gained importance as a way to synthesize nanoparticles (NPs) in an environmentally sustainable manner. Increasing numbers of studies have been published on the green synthesis of NPs using natural sources such as bacteria, fungi, [...] Read more.
The use of natural reducing and capping agents has gained importance as a way to synthesize nanoparticles (NPs) in an environmentally sustainable manner. Increasing numbers of studies have been published on the green synthesis of NPs using natural sources such as bacteria, fungi, and plants. In recent years, the use of honey in the synthesis of metal and metal oxide NPs has become a new and promising area of research. Honey acts as both a stabilizing and reducing agent in the NP synthesis process and serves as a precursor. This review focuses on the use of honey in the synthesis of silver NPs (Ag-NPs) and zinc oxide NPs (ZnO-NPs), emphasizing its role as a reducing and capping agent. Additionally, a comprehensive examination of the bio-based reducing and capping/stabilizing agents used in the honey-mediated biosynthesis mechanism is provided. Finally, the review looks forward to environmentally friendly methods for NP synthesis. Full article
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22 pages, 11689 KiB  
Review
MXene-Carbon Nanotube Composites: Properties and Applications
by Fatemeh Mohajer, Ghodsi Mohammadi Ziarani, Alireza Badiei, Siavash Iravani and Rajender S. Varma
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(2), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13020345 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5151
Abstract
Today, MXenes and their composites have shown attractive capabilities in numerous fields of electronics, co-catalysis/photocatalysis, sensing/imaging, batteries/supercapacitors, electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, tissue engineering/regenerative medicine, drug delivery, cancer theranostics, and soft robotics. In this aspect, MXene-carbon nanotube (CNT) composites have been widely constructed with [...] Read more.
Today, MXenes and their composites have shown attractive capabilities in numerous fields of electronics, co-catalysis/photocatalysis, sensing/imaging, batteries/supercapacitors, electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, tissue engineering/regenerative medicine, drug delivery, cancer theranostics, and soft robotics. In this aspect, MXene-carbon nanotube (CNT) composites have been widely constructed with improved environmental stability, excellent electrical conductivity, and robust mechanical properties, providing great opportunities for designing modern and intelligent systems with diagnostic/therapeutic, electronic, and environmental applications. MXenes with unique architectures, large specific surface areas, ease of functionalization, and high electrical conductivity have been employed for hybridization with CNTs with superb heat conductivity, electrical conductivity, and fascinating mechanical features. However, most of the studies have centered around their electronic, EMI shielding, catalytic, and sensing applications; thus, the need for research on biomedical and diagnostic/therapeutic applications of these materials ought to be given more attention. The photothermal conversion efficiency, selectivity/sensitivity, environmental stability/recyclability, biocompatibility/toxicity, long-term biosafety, stimuli-responsiveness features, and clinical translation studies are among the most crucial research aspects that still need to be comprehensively investigated. Although limited explorations have focused on MXene-CNT composites, future studies should be planned on the optimization of reaction/synthesis conditions, surface functionalization, and toxicological evaluations. Herein, most recent advancements pertaining to the applications of MXene-CNT composites in sensing, catalysis, supercapacitors/batteries, EMI shielding, water treatment/pollutants removal are highlighted, focusing on current trends, challenges, and future outlooks. Full article
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12 pages, 1025 KiB  
Review
A Brief Review of Recent Results in Arsenic Adsorption Process from Aquatic Environments by Metal-Organic Frameworks: Classification Based on Kinetics, Isotherms and Thermodynamics Behaviors
by Mohsen Samimi, Mozhgan Zakeri, Falah Alobaid and Babak Aghel
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13010060 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2174
Abstract
In nature, arsenic, a metalloid found in soil, is one of the most dangerous elements that can be combined with heavy metals. Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is considered one of the most dangerous environmental pollutants, especially for microorganisms and human health. An [...] Read more.
In nature, arsenic, a metalloid found in soil, is one of the most dangerous elements that can be combined with heavy metals. Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is considered one of the most dangerous environmental pollutants, especially for microorganisms and human health. An overabundance of heavy metals primarily leads to disturbances in the fundamental reactions and synthesis of essential macromolecules in living organisms. Among these contaminants, the presence of arsenic in the aquatic environment has always been a global concern. As (V) and As (III) are the two most common oxidation states of inorganic arsenic ions. This research concentrates on the kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamics of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which have been applied for arsenic ions uptake from aqueous solutions. This review provides an overview of the current capabilities and properties of MOFs used for arsenic removal, focusing on its kinetics and isotherms of adsorption, as well as its thermodynamic behavior in water and wastewater. Full article
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