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Special Issue "Progress in Volatile Organic Compounds Research"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Igor Jerković

University of Split, Department of Organic Chemistry, Split, Croatia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 00385 21 329 420
Interests: essential oil; volatiles; headspace compounds; chemical markers; gas chromatography and mass spectrometry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been intensively investigated in last few decades. Their origins could be different: Plant secondary metabolites, food/beverages aroma, fungal/bacterial volatiles, and others. VOCs typically occur as a complex mixture of compounds (e.g., monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, norisoprenoids, aliphatic/aromatic compounds, sulfur containing compounds, others). They are formed through different biochemical pathways and could be modified or created during drying or maturation, thermal treatment, and others. Different conventional or modern methods of VOCs isolation followed by the analysis with chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques usually provide different chemical profiles and have been under constant modification and upgrading. The ecological interactions are mediated by VOCs (inter- and intra-organismic communication) and they can act as pheromones, attractants or alleochemicals. Among them, chemical biomarkers of botanical origin or chemotaxonomic markers can be found. Many VOCs possess different biological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, and others.

There is still great need to research VOCs from different sources, to report their distribution, chemical profiles, and to discover new compounds. This Special Issue aims to attract up-to-date contributions on all aspects of VOCs chemistry (from challenges in their isolation, analysis to synthesis) and on unlocking their biological activities or other useful properties.

Prof. Dr. Igor Jerković
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • volatile organic compounds
  • essential oils
  • headspace compounds
  • modern methods of volatiles isolation, analysis or synthesis
  • chemical or chemotaxonomic biomarkers
  • pheromones, attractants, alleochemicals
  • biological activity
  • GC-MS

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Profile of Urinary Headspace Volatile Organic Compounds After 12-Week Intake of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin by Children and Adolescents with Celiac Disease on a Gluten-Free Diet: Results of a Pilot, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071341
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 5 April 2019
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Abstract
The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can inform about the metabolic condition of the body. In the small intestine of untreated persons with celiac disease (CD), chronic inflammation can occur, leading to nutritional deficiencies, and consequently to functional impairments of the whole [...] Read more.
The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can inform about the metabolic condition of the body. In the small intestine of untreated persons with celiac disease (CD), chronic inflammation can occur, leading to nutritional deficiencies, and consequently to functional impairments of the whole body. Metabolomic studies showed differences in the profile of VOCs in biological fluids of patients with CD in comparison to healthy persons; however, there is scarce quantitative and nutritional intervention information. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of a gluten-free diet (GFD) with prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1) on the concentration of VOCs in the urine of children and adolescents with CD. Twenty-three participants were randomized to the group receiving Synergy 1 (10 g per day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Urinary VOCs were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Sixteen compounds were identified and quantified in urine samples. The supplementation of GFD with Synergy 1 resulted in an average concentration drop (36%) of benzaldehyde in urine samples. In summary, Synergy 1, applied as a supplement of GFD for 12 weeks had a moderate impact on the VOC concentrations in the urine of children with CD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Volatile Organic Compounds Research)
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Open AccessArticle
GC-MS Analysis of the Composition of the Extracts and Essential Oil from Myristica fragrans Seeds Using Magnesium Aluminometasilicate as Excipient
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1062; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061062
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 14 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
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Abstract
Myristica fragrans (f. Myristicaceae) seeds are better known as a spice, but their chemical compounds may have a pharmacological effect. The yield of their composition of extracts and essential oils differs due to different methodologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate [...] Read more.
Myristica fragrans (f. Myristicaceae) seeds are better known as a spice, but their chemical compounds may have a pharmacological effect. The yield of their composition of extracts and essential oils differs due to different methodologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate an excipient material—magnesium aluminometasilicate—and to determine its influence on the qualitative composition of nutmeg extracts and essential oils. Furthermore, we wanted to compare the yield of essential oil. The extracts were prepared by maceration (M) and ultrasound bath-assisted extraction (UAE), and the essential oil—by hydrodistillation (HD). Conventional methods (UAE, HD) were modified with magnesium aluminometasilicate. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. From 16 to 19 chemical compounds were obtained using UAE with magnesium aluminometasilicate, while only 8 to 13 compounds were obtained using UAE without an excipient. Using our conditions and plant material, for the first time eight new chemical compounds in nutmeg essential oil were identified. Two of these compounds (γ-amorphene and cis-α-bergamotene) were obtained with the use of excipient, the other six (β-copaene, bergamotene, citronellyl decanoate, cubebol, cubenene, orthodene) by conventional hydrodistillation. Magnesium aluminometasilicate significantly increased the quantity of sabinene (from 6.53% to 61.42%) and limonene (from 0% to 5.62%) in essential oil. The yield of the essential oil from nutmeg seeds was significantly higher using magnesium aluminometasilicate; it increased from 5.25 ± 0.04% to 10.43 ± 0.09%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Volatile Organic Compounds Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Yeast Smell Like What They Eat: Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds of Malassezia furfur in Growth Media Supplemented with Different Lipids
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030419
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract
Malassezia furfur is part of the human skin microbiota. Its volatile organic compounds (VOCs) possibly contribute to the characteristic odour in humans, as well as to microbiota interaction. The aim of this study was to investigate how the lipid composition of the liquid [...] Read more.
Malassezia furfur is part of the human skin microbiota. Its volatile organic compounds (VOCs) possibly contribute to the characteristic odour in humans, as well as to microbiota interaction. The aim of this study was to investigate how the lipid composition of the liquid medium influences the production of VOCs. Growth was performed in four media: (1) mDixon, (2) oleic acid (OA), (3) oleic acid + palmitic acid (OA+PA), and (4) palmitic acid (PA). The profiles of the VOCs were characterized by HS-SPME/GC-MS in the exponential and stationary phases. A total number of 61 VOCs was found in M. furfur, among which alkanes, alcohols, ketones, and furanic compounds were the most abundant. Some compounds previously reported for Malassezia (γ-dodecalactone, 3-methylbutan-1-ol, and hexan-1-ol) were also found. Through our experiments, using univariate and multivariate unsupervised (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA)) and supervised (Projection to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA)) statistical techniques, we have proven that each tested growth medium stimulates the production of a different volatiles profile in M. furfur. Carbon dioxide, hexan-1-ol, pentyl acetate, isomer5 of methyldecane, dimethyl sulphide, undec-5-ene, isomer2 of methylundecane, isomer1 of methyldecane, and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran were established as differentiating compounds among treatments by all the techniques. The significance of our findings deserves future research to investigate if certain volatile profiles could be related to the beneficial or pathogenic role of this yeast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Volatile Organic Compounds Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Volatile Compounds of Selected Raw and Cooked Brassica Vegetables
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030391
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
PDF Full-text (2347 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Brassica vegetables are a significant component of the human diet and their popularity is systematically increasing. The interest in plants from this group is growing because of numerous reports focused on their pro-health properties. However, some consumers are not enthusiastic about these vegetables [...] Read more.
Brassica vegetables are a significant component of the human diet and their popularity is systematically increasing. The interest in plants from this group is growing because of numerous reports focused on their pro-health properties. However, some consumers are not enthusiastic about these vegetables because of their specific bitter taste and sharp, sulfurous aroma. In this study, the volatile composition of 15 Brassica cultivars (five Brussels sprouts, four kohlrabi, three cauliflower and three broccoli), both raw and cooked, was analyzed by solid phase microextraction and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometry (SPME-GC×GC-ToFMS). Differences were found between the analyzed vegetables, as well as different cultivars of the same vegetable. Moreover, the influence of cooking on the composition of volatile compounds was evaluated. All the vegetables were frozen before analyses, which is why the impact of this process on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was included. The most abundant groups of compounds were sulfur components (including bioactive isothiocyanates), nitriles, aldehydes and alcohols. Cooking in general caused a decrease in the abundance of main volatiles. However, the amount of bioactive isothiocyanates increased in most cultivars after cooking. The effect of freezing on the volatile fraction was presented based on the Brussels sprout cultivars. Most of the changes were closely related to the activity of the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway enzymes. These are characterized by a marked reduction in alcohol contents and an increment in aldehyde contents. Moreover, important changes were noted in the concentrations of bioactive components, e.g., isothiocyanates. This research included a large set of samples consisting of many cultivars of each analyzed vegetable, which is why it provides a considerable body of general information concerning volatiles in Brassica vegetables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Volatile Organic Compounds Research)
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