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Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071341

The Profile of Urinary Headspace Volatile Organic Compounds After 12-Week Intake of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin by Children and Adolescents with Celiac Disease on a Gluten-Free Diet: Results of a Pilot, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

1
Department of Chemistry and Biodynamics of Food, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10 Str., 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Department of Pediatrics, Gastroenterology, and Nutrition, Collegium Medicum, University of Warmia & Mazury, Oczapowskiego 2 Str., 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
3
Institute of Biosensor Technology, the University of the West of England, University of the West of England, Coldharbour Lane, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 5 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Volatile Organic Compounds Research)
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Abstract

The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can inform about the metabolic condition of the body. In the small intestine of untreated persons with celiac disease (CD), chronic inflammation can occur, leading to nutritional deficiencies, and consequently to functional impairments of the whole body. Metabolomic studies showed differences in the profile of VOCs in biological fluids of patients with CD in comparison to healthy persons; however, there is scarce quantitative and nutritional intervention information. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of a gluten-free diet (GFD) with prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1) on the concentration of VOCs in the urine of children and adolescents with CD. Twenty-three participants were randomized to the group receiving Synergy 1 (10 g per day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Urinary VOCs were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Sixteen compounds were identified and quantified in urine samples. The supplementation of GFD with Synergy 1 resulted in an average concentration drop (36%) of benzaldehyde in urine samples. In summary, Synergy 1, applied as a supplement of GFD for 12 weeks had a moderate impact on the VOC concentrations in the urine of children with CD. View Full-Text
Keywords: volatile organic compounds; celiac disease; gluten-free diet; gas chromatography–mass spectrometry; solid-phase microextraction; prebiotic volatile organic compounds; celiac disease; gluten-free diet; gas chromatography–mass spectrometry; solid-phase microextraction; prebiotic
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Drabińska, N.; Jarocka-Cyrta, E.; Ratcliffe, N.M.; Krupa-Kozak, U. The Profile of Urinary Headspace Volatile Organic Compounds After 12-Week Intake of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin by Children and Adolescents with Celiac Disease on a Gluten-Free Diet: Results of a Pilot, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Molecules 2019, 24, 1341.

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