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Special Issue "Anthocyanin"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Luciana Mosca
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Biochimiche 'A. Rossi Fanelli', Rome, Italy
Interests: oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; neurodegeneration; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; probiotics; polyphenols; flavonoids; anthocyanins, LC/MS
Prof. Dr. Paula Silva
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar (ICBAS), University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
Interests: mediterranean diet; wine; foods; nutrients; phytochemicals; polyphenols; bioactive compounds; lifestyle patterns; sustainable agriculture; wine marketing; wine tourism; sustainable wine tourism and tourist motivation; sustainable agrifood chain; science communication
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The emerging epidemic of chronic degenerative noncommunicable diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, obesity, and cardiovascular disease has prompted the search for natural products able to counteract these pathologies. In this perspective, polyphenols and anthocyanins, in particular, which we ingest with food on a daily basis, represent one of the most attractive categories of bioactive molecules. Their activities range from antioxidant to cardiometabolic, neuropotective, anticancer, and antimicrobial effects.

Authors are invited to submit manuscripts which focus on aspects related to anthocyanins, such as isolation and analytical characterization, biological activities (antioxidant, health promoting, antimicrobial), and nutritional aspects of anthocyanins intake (from absorption and metabolism to functional foods/nutraceuticals).

Prof. Dr. Luciana Mosca
Prof. Dr. Paula Silva
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Anthocyanins
  • Antioxidant
  • Biological activity
  • Functional foods
  • Nutraceuticals
  • Health-promoting effects
  • Absorption and metabolism
  • Inflammation
  • Chronic and degenerative diseases

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Editorial for Special Issue: Anthocyanin
Molecules 2021, 26(9), 2496; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092496 - 25 Apr 2021
Viewed by 411
Abstract
What do jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba), Jamun berry (Syzygium cumini), Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense), crimson glory vine (Vitis coignetiae) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) have in common [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanin)

Research

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Article
Antiproliferative Activity on Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells and In Vitro Antioxidant Effect of Anthocyanin-Rich Extracts from Peels of Species of the Myrtaceae Family
Molecules 2021, 26(3), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26030564 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 591
Abstract
There is a significant indication of the beneficial health effects of fruit rich diets. Fruits of native plant species have noticeably different phytochemicals and bioactive effects. The aim of this work was to characterize and compare the constituents of jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba [...] Read more.
There is a significant indication of the beneficial health effects of fruit rich diets. Fruits of native plant species have noticeably different phytochemicals and bioactive effects. The aim of this work was to characterize and compare the constituents of jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba, MJ), jamun-berry (Syzygium cumini, SC), and malay-apple (Syzygium malaccense, SM) extracts and their influence on antioxidant activity in vitro and antiproliferative effects on human colon adenocarcinoma cells. According to the results, dried peel powders (DP) have a high anthocyanin content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity when compared to freeze dried extracts (FD). M. jaboticaba dried peel powder extract had a higher total anthocyanin and phenolic compounds content (802.90 ± 1.93 and 2152.92 ± 43.95 mg/100 g, respectively). A reduction in cell viability of HT-29 cells after treatment with M. jaboticaba extracts (DP-MJ and FD-MJ) was observed via MTT assay. Flow cytometry showed that the treatment with the anthocyanin-rich extracts from MJ, SC, and SM had an inhibitory impact on cell development due to G2/M arrest and caused a rise in apoptotic cells in relation to the control group. The findings of this study highlight the potential of peel powders from Myrtaceae fruits as an important source of natural antioxidants and a protective effect against colon adenocarcinoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanin)
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Article
Anthocyanins Derived from Vitis coignetiae Pulliat Contributes Anti-Cancer Effects by Suppressing NF-κB Pathways in Hep3B Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells and In Vivo
Molecules 2020, 25(22), 5445; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225445 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 512
Abstract
We previously demonstrated that anthocyanins from the fruits of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat (AIMs) induced the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. However, many researchers argued that the concentrations of AIMs were too high for in vivo experiments. Therefore, we performed in vitro at lower [...] Read more.
We previously demonstrated that anthocyanins from the fruits of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat (AIMs) induced the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. However, many researchers argued that the concentrations of AIMs were too high for in vivo experiments. Therefore, we performed in vitro at lower concentrations and in vivo experiments for the anti-cancer effects of AIMs. AIMs inhibited the cell proliferation of Hep3B cells in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum concentration of 100 µg/mL. AIMs also inhibited the invasion and migration at 100 µg/mL concentration with or without the presence of TNF-α. To establish the relevance between the in vitro and in vivo results, we validated their effects in a Xenograft model of Hep3B human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In the in vivo test, AIMs inhibited the tumorigenicity of Hep3B cells in the xenograft mouse model without showing any clinical signs of toxicity or any changes in the body weight of mice. AIMs inhibited the activation NF-κB and suppressed the NF-κB-regulated proteins, intra-tumoral microvessel density (IMVD) and the Ki67 activity of Hep3B xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice. In conclusion, this study indicates that AIMs have anti-cancer effects (inhibition of proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis) on human hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft through the inhibition of NF-κB and its target protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanin)
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Article
Anthocyanin Intake and Physical Activity: Associations with the Lipid Profile of a US Working Population
Molecules 2020, 25(19), 4398; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25194398 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 708
Abstract
While growing evidence exists on the independent associations between anthocyanins and physical activity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk determinants, the possible interaction between these exposures has not yet been studied. We aimed to study the potential synergism between anthocyanin intake and physical activity [...] Read more.
While growing evidence exists on the independent associations between anthocyanins and physical activity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk determinants, the possible interaction between these exposures has not yet been studied. We aimed to study the potential synergism between anthocyanin intake and physical activity on lipid profile measures. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 249 US career firefighters participating in the Feeding America’s Bravest trial. Anthocyanin intake was calculated using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and physical activity level by a validated questionnaire. Multivariable linear regression models determined the extent to which anthocyanin intake and physical activity predicted lipid parameters. Generalized linear models were used for joint effect and interaction analyses on the multiplicative and additive scales. Both anthocyanins and physical activity were independently inversely associated with total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Only physical activity was inversely associated with triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol:HDL, and triglycerides (TG):HDL. Although the combined exposure of low anthocyanin intake and low physical activity was associated with lower (RR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.42 to 5.67) HDL cholesterol <40 mg/dL, neither multiplicative (p = 0.72) nor additive interactions were detected (relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI): 0.02; 95% CI: −1.63 to 1.66; p = 0.98). Our findings provide insight on the potential synergism between anthocyanin intake and physical activity on the lipid profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanin)
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Article
Anthocyanins Isolated from Vitis coignetiae Pulliat Enhances Cisplatin Sensitivity in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells through Inhibition of Akt and NF-κB Activation
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3623; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163623 - 09 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 990
Abstract
Anthocyanins isolated from Vitis coignetiae Pulliat (Meoru in Korea) (AIMs) have various anti-cancer properties by inhibiting Akt and NF-κB which are involved in drug resistance. Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the popular anti-cancer agents. Studies reported that MCF-7 human breast cancer cells have [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins isolated from Vitis coignetiae Pulliat (Meoru in Korea) (AIMs) have various anti-cancer properties by inhibiting Akt and NF-κB which are involved in drug resistance. Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the popular anti-cancer agents. Studies reported that MCF-7 human breast cancer cells have high resistance to CDDP compared to other breast cancer cell lines. In this study, we confirmed CDDP resistance of MCF-7 cells and tested whether AIMs can overcome CDDP resistance of MCF-7 cells. Cell viability assay revealed that MCF-7 cells were more resistant to CDDP treatment than MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells exhibiting aggressive and high cancer stem cell phenotype. AIMs significantly augmented the efficacy of CDDP with synergistic effects on MCF-7 cells. Molecularly, Western blot analysis revealed that CDDP strongly increased Akt and moderately reduced p-NF-κB and p-IκB and that AIMs inhibited CDDP-induced Akt activation, and augmented CDDP-induced reduction of p-NF-κB and p-IκB in MCF-7 cells. In addition, AIMs significantly downregulated an anti-apoptotic protein, XIAP, and augmented PARP-1 cleavage in CDDP-treated MCF-7 cells. Moreover, under TNF-α treatment, AIMs augmented CDDP efficacy with inhibition of NF-κB activation on MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, AIMs enhanced CDDP sensitivity by inhibiting Akt and NF-κB activity of MCF-7 cells that show relative intrinsic CDDP resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanin)
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Article
Pretreatment of Anthocyanin from the Fruit of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat Acts as a Potent Inhibitor of TNF-α Effect by Inhibiting NF-κB-Regulated Genes in Human Breast Cancer Cells
Molecules 2020, 25(10), 2396; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102396 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
Vitis coignetiae Pulliat (Meoru in Korea) has been used in Korean folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancers. Evidence suggests that NF-κB activation is mainly involved in cancer cell proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. TNF-α also enhances the inflammatory process [...] Read more.
Vitis coignetiae Pulliat (Meoru in Korea) has been used in Korean folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancers. Evidence suggests that NF-κB activation is mainly involved in cancer cell proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. TNF-α also enhances the inflammatory process in tumor development. Recently, flavonoids from plants have been reported to have inhibitory effects on NF-κB activities. We investigated the effects of anthocyanins extracted from the fruits of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat (AIM, anthocyanins isolated from Meoru (AIM)) on TNF-α-induced NF-κB activities in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and the molecules involved in AIM-induced anti-cancer effects, especially on cancer metastasis. We performed cell viability assay, gelatin zymography, invasion assay, and western blot analysis to unravel the anti-NF-κB activity of AIMs on MCF-7 cells. AIM suppressed the TNF-α effects on the NF-κB-regulated proteins involved in cancer cell proliferation (COX-2, C-myc), invasion, and angiogenesis (MMP-2, MMP9, ICAM-1, and VEGF). AIM also increased the expression of E-cadherin, which is one of the hallmarks of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the anthocyanins isolated from the fruits of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat acts as an inhibitor of TNF-α induced NF-κB activation, and subsequent downstream molecules involved in cancer proliferation, invasion, adhesion, angiogenesis, and thus have anti-metastatic activities in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanin)
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Article
Anthocyanin Induction by Drought Stress in the Calyx of Roselle Cultivars
Molecules 2020, 25(7), 1555; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25071555 - 28 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 947
Abstract
Abiotic factors can alter the chemical profile of crops and the number of compounds they contain. In this study, the anthocyanin and anthocyanidin contents, determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC-MS/MS), and the colour attributes of the calyces of three cultivars of Hibiscus sabdariffa [...] Read more.
Abiotic factors can alter the chemical profile of crops and the number of compounds they contain. In this study, the anthocyanin and anthocyanidin contents, determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC-MS/MS), and the colour attributes of the calyces of three cultivars of Hibiscus sabdariffa subjected to three water stress regimes during the stage of physiological maturity were investigated. The total anthocyanin content in calyx increased relative to the control content under a 65% moisture irrigation regime. Among the cultivars, UAN16-2 showed the greatest increases in the contents of cyanidin, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside. The content of cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside showed the greatest increase, increasing by 55% relative to the control level. The contents of these compounds are correlated with colour attributes such as luminosity. Water stress under the 33% moisture condition during plant development led to decreased anthocyanin contents in all of the roselle cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanin)
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Review

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Review
Anthocyanins as Antidiabetic Agents—In Vitro and In Silico Approaches of Preventive and Therapeutic Effects
Molecules 2020, 25(17), 3813; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173813 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1037
Abstract
Many efforts have been made in the past two decades into the search for novel natural and less-toxic anti-diabetic agents. Some clinical trials have assigned this ability to anthocyanins, although different factors like the food source, the amount ingested, the matrix effect and [...] Read more.
Many efforts have been made in the past two decades into the search for novel natural and less-toxic anti-diabetic agents. Some clinical trials have assigned this ability to anthocyanins, although different factors like the food source, the amount ingested, the matrix effect and the time of consumption (before or after a meal) seem to result in contradictory conclusions. The possible mechanisms involved in these preventive or therapeutic effects will be discussed—giving emphasis to the latest in vitro and in silico approaches. Therapeutic strategies to counteract metabolic alterations related to hyperglycemia and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) may include: (a) Inhibition of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes; (b) reduction of glucose transporters expression or activity; (c) inhibition of glycogenolysis and (d) modulation of gut microbiota by anthocyanin breakdown products. These strategies may be achieved through administration of individual anthocyanins or by functional foods containing complexes of anthocyanin:carbohydrate:protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanin)
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Review
Anthocyanins: A Comprehensive Review of Their Chemical Properties and Health Effects on Cardiovascular and Neurodegenerative Diseases
Molecules 2020, 25(17), 3809; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173809 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1879
Abstract
Anthocyanins are a class of water-soluble flavonoids widely present in fruits and vegetables. Dietary sources of anthocyanins include red and purple berries, grapes, apples, plums, cabbage, or foods containing high levels of natural colorants. Cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, peonidin, petunidin, and pelargonidin are the [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins are a class of water-soluble flavonoids widely present in fruits and vegetables. Dietary sources of anthocyanins include red and purple berries, grapes, apples, plums, cabbage, or foods containing high levels of natural colorants. Cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, peonidin, petunidin, and pelargonidin are the six common anthocyanidins. Following consumption, anthocyanin, absorption occurs along the gastrointestinal tract, the distal lower bowel being the place where most of the absorption and metabolism occurs. In the intestine, anthocyanins first undergo extensive microbial catabolism followed by absorption and human phase II metabolism. This produces hybrid microbial–human metabolites which are absorbed and subsequently increase the bioavailability of anthocyanins. Health benefits of anthocyanins have been widely described, especially in the prevention of diseases associated with oxidative stress, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that health-promoting effects attributed to anthocyanins may also be related to modulation of gut microbiota. In this paper we attempt to provide a comprehensive view of the state-of-the-art literature on anthocyanins, summarizing recent findings on their chemistry, biosynthesis, nutritional value and on their effects on human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanin)
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