Next Article in Journal
Long-Term Physical Aging Tracked by Advanced Thermal Analysis of Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide): A Smart Polymer for Drug Delivery System
Next Article in Special Issue
Anthocyanins as Antidiabetic Agents—In Vitro and In Silico Approaches of Preventive and Therapeutic Effects
Previous Article in Journal
Workflow for the Quantification of Soluble and Insoluble Carbohydrates in Soybean Seed
Previous Article in Special Issue
Anthocyanins Isolated from Vitis coignetiae Pulliat Enhances Cisplatin Sensitivity in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells through Inhibition of Akt and NF-κB Activation
 
 
Review

Anthocyanins: A Comprehensive Review of Their Chemical Properties and Health Effects on Cardiovascular and Neurodegenerative Diseases

1
Department of Sciences, RomaTre University, v.le G. Marconi 446, 00146 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Biochemical Sciences, Sapienza University, p.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
3
Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar (ICBAS), Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira n°228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2020, 25(17), 3809; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173809
Received: 6 August 2020 / Revised: 17 August 2020 / Accepted: 21 August 2020 / Published: 21 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanin)
Anthocyanins are a class of water-soluble flavonoids widely present in fruits and vegetables. Dietary sources of anthocyanins include red and purple berries, grapes, apples, plums, cabbage, or foods containing high levels of natural colorants. Cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, peonidin, petunidin, and pelargonidin are the six common anthocyanidins. Following consumption, anthocyanin, absorption occurs along the gastrointestinal tract, the distal lower bowel being the place where most of the absorption and metabolism occurs. In the intestine, anthocyanins first undergo extensive microbial catabolism followed by absorption and human phase II metabolism. This produces hybrid microbial–human metabolites which are absorbed and subsequently increase the bioavailability of anthocyanins. Health benefits of anthocyanins have been widely described, especially in the prevention of diseases associated with oxidative stress, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that health-promoting effects attributed to anthocyanins may also be related to modulation of gut microbiota. In this paper we attempt to provide a comprehensive view of the state-of-the-art literature on anthocyanins, summarizing recent findings on their chemistry, biosynthesis, nutritional value and on their effects on human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthocyanins; anthocyanidins; bioavailability; antioxidants; colorants; biological activity; biosynthesis anthocyanins; anthocyanidins; bioavailability; antioxidants; colorants; biological activity; biosynthesis
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Mattioli, R.; Francioso, A.; Mosca, L.; Silva, P. Anthocyanins: A Comprehensive Review of Their Chemical Properties and Health Effects on Cardiovascular and Neurodegenerative Diseases. Molecules 2020, 25, 3809. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173809

AMA Style

Mattioli R, Francioso A, Mosca L, Silva P. Anthocyanins: A Comprehensive Review of Their Chemical Properties and Health Effects on Cardiovascular and Neurodegenerative Diseases. Molecules. 2020; 25(17):3809. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173809

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mattioli, Roberto, Antonio Francioso, Luciana Mosca, and Paula Silva. 2020. "Anthocyanins: A Comprehensive Review of Their Chemical Properties and Health Effects on Cardiovascular and Neurodegenerative Diseases" Molecules 25, no. 17: 3809. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173809

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop