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Special Issue "Benefits of the Mediterranean Diet–Wine Association: Role of Components"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 15046

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Special Issue Editors

Dr. Paula Silva
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar (ICBAS), University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
Interests: mediterranean diet; wine; foods; nutrients; phytochemicals; polyphenols; bioactive compounds; lifestyle patterns; sustainable agriculture; wine marketing; wine tourism; sustainable wine tourism and tourist motivation; sustainable agrifood chain; science communication
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Norbert Latruffe
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Team BioPeroxIL, INSERM, Biochem Peroxisome Inflammat&Lipid Metab EA7270, University Bourgogne Franche Comte, F-21000 Dijon, France
Interests: bio-active polyphenols; resveratrol; inflammation; bio-availability; cancer; pathologies prevention
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Mediterranean diet is a model of eating based on the traditional foods and drinks of the countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. In recent decades, it has been promoted worldwide as one of the healthiest dietary patterns and has been reported to have benefits regarding chronic diseases and longevity. The Mediterranean diet encourages moderated consumption of wine. However, many consumers do not know what to think about the health effects of drinking wine. Moderate drinking has been associated to health benefits by some researchers, especially to the richness of wine in anti-oxidant. Others, on the other hand, claim that even the occasional drink is harmful to health.
The creation of a Molecules Special Issue which focuses on the Role of Wine Components in the Mediterranean Diet Benefits would be a good opportunity to support this concept. Any manuscripts related to polyphenols; resveratrol; aging; antioxidant; wine; health; the Mediterranean diet; nutrition; diseases; welfare; behavior; etc. at the level of mechanisms, analysis, and experimental and epidemiological studies are welcome.
Please note that the clarification of this issue was what motivated Science & Wine to promote Conference on “Wine Consumption in the Mediterranean Diet: A clarification about health effects” be held in Porto on 4–5 June 2020, https://www.science-and-wine-conferences.com

Prof. Dr. Paula Silva
Prof. Dr. Norbert Latruffe
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Polyphenols
  • Wine
  • Mediterranean diet
  • Flavonoids
  • Public health policy
  • Healthy lifestyle
  • Mediterranean countries
  • Health communication
  • Nutrition
  • Welfare
  • Culture heritage

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Benefits of the Mediterranean Diet–Wine Association: The Role of Ingredients
Molecules 2022, 27(4), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27041273 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 382
Abstract
The cultural and nutritional aspects of the multi-secular Mediterranean civilization include diet as a central element of health and well-being, including wine if it is used in moderation [...] Full article

Research

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Article
Resveratrol Hinders Postovulatory Aging by Modulating Oxidative Stress in Porcine Oocytes
Molecules 2021, 26(21), 6346; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26216346 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 627
Abstract
Postovulatory aging of the mammalian oocytes causes deterioration of oocytes through several factors including oxidative stress. Keeping that in mind, we aimed to investigate the potential of a well-known antioxidant, resveratrol (RV), to evaluate the adverse effects of postovulatory aging in porcine oocytes. [...] Read more.
Postovulatory aging of the mammalian oocytes causes deterioration of oocytes through several factors including oxidative stress. Keeping that in mind, we aimed to investigate the potential of a well-known antioxidant, resveratrol (RV), to evaluate the adverse effects of postovulatory aging in porcine oocytes. After in vitro maturation (IVM), a group of (25–30) oocytes (in three replicates) were exposed to 0, 1, 2, and 4 μmol/L of RV, respectively. The results revealed that the first polar body (PB1) extrusion rate of the oocytes significantly increased when the RV concentration reached up to 2 μmol/L (p < 0.05). Considering optimum RV concentration of 2 μmol/L, the potential of RV was evaluated in oocytes aged for 24 and 48 h. We used fluorescence microscopy to detect the relative level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while GHS contents were measured through the enzymatic method. Our results revealed that aged groups (24 h and 48 h) treated with RV (2 μmol/L) showed higher (p < 0.05) ROS fluorescence intensity than the control group, but lower (p < 0.05) than untreated aged groups. The GSH content in untreated aged groups (24 h and 48 h) was lower (p < 0.05) than RV-treated groups, but both groups showed higher levels than the control. Similarly, the relative expression of the genes involved in antioxidant activity (CAT, GPXGSH-Px, and SOD1) in RV-treated groups was lower (p < 0.05) as compared to the control group but higher than that of untreated aged groups. Moreover, the relative mRNA expression of caspase-3 and Bax in RV-treated groups was higher (p < 0.05) than the control group but lower than untreated groups. Furthermore, the expression of Bcl-2 in the RV-treated group was significantly lower than control but higher than untreated aged groups. Taken together, our findings revealed that the RV can increase the expression of antioxidant genes by decreasing the level of ROS, and its potent antiapoptotic effects resisted against the decline in mitochondrial membrane potential in aged oocytes. Full article
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Article
Red Wine Extract Inhibits VEGF Secretion and Its Signaling Pathway in Retinal ARPE-19 Cells to Potentially Disrupt AMD
Molecules 2020, 25(23), 5564; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235564 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 892
Abstract
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative disease of the retina where the molecular mechanism involves the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a factor of poor prognosis of the progression of the disease. Previous studies have shown that resveratrol, a polyphenol [...] Read more.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative disease of the retina where the molecular mechanism involves the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a factor of poor prognosis of the progression of the disease. Previous studies have shown that resveratrol, a polyphenol of grapevines, can prevent VEGF secretion induced by stress from retinal cells. Considering the fundamental role played by VEGF in development and progression of AMD, we investigate the potential effect of red wine extract (RWE) on VEGF secretion and its signaling pathway in human retinal cells ARPE-19. To examine the effect of RWE in ARPE-19, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the RWE was performed by HPLC MS/MS. We show for the first time that RWE decreased VEGF-A secretion from ARPE-19 cells and its protein expression in concentration-dependent manner. RWE-induced alteration in VEGF-A production is associated with a down of VEGF-receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) protein expression and its phosphorylated intracytoplasmic domain. Subsequently, the activation of kinase pathway is disturbing and RWE prevents the phosphorylation of MEK and ERK 1/2 in human retinal cells ARPE-19. Finally, this study sheds light on the interest that the use of polyphenolic cocktails could represent in a prevention strategy. Full article
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Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Resveratrol Butyrate Esters That Have the Ability to Prevent Fat Accumulation in a Liver Cell Culture Model
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4199; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184199 - 14 Sep 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1753
Abstract
To facilitate broad applications and enhance bioactivity, resveratrol was esterified to resveratrol butyrate esters (RBE). Esterification with butyric acid was conducted by the Steglich esterification method at room temperature with N-ethyl-N′-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and 4-dimethyl aminopyridine (DMAP). Our experiments demonstrated [...] Read more.
To facilitate broad applications and enhance bioactivity, resveratrol was esterified to resveratrol butyrate esters (RBE). Esterification with butyric acid was conducted by the Steglich esterification method at room temperature with N-ethyl-N′-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and 4-dimethyl aminopyridine (DMAP). Our experiments demonstrated the synthesis of RBE through EDC- and DMAP-facilitated esterification was successful and that the FTIR spectra of RBE revealed absorption (1751 cm−1) in the ester region. 13C-NMR spectrum of RBE showed a peak at 171 ppm corresponding to the ester group and peaks between 1700 and 1600 cm−1 in the FTIR spectra. RBE treatment (25 or 50 μM) decreased oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. This effect was stronger than that of resveratrol and mediated through the downregulation of p-ACC and SREBP-2 expression. This is the first study demonstrating RBE could be synthesized by the Steglich method and that resulting RBE could inhibit lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that RBE could potentially serve as functional food ingredients and supplements for health promotion. Full article
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Article
Protective Effects of Some Grapevine Polyphenols against Naturally Occurring Neuronal Death
Molecules 2020, 25(12), 2925; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122925 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 998
Abstract
The interest in the biological properties of grapevine polyphenols (PPs) in neuroprotection is continuously growing in the hope of finding translational applications. However, there are several concerns about the specificity of action of these molecules that appear to act non-specifically on the permeability [...] Read more.
The interest in the biological properties of grapevine polyphenols (PPs) in neuroprotection is continuously growing in the hope of finding translational applications. However, there are several concerns about the specificity of action of these molecules that appear to act non-specifically on the permeability of cellular membranes. Naturally occurring neuronal death (NOND) during cerebellar maturation is a well characterized postnatal event that is very useful to investigate the death and rescue of neurons. We here aimed to establish a baseline comparative study of the potential to counteract NOND of certain grapevine PPs of interest for the oenology. To do so, we tested ex vivo the neuroprotective activity of peonidin- and malvidin-3-O-glucosides, resveratrol, polydatin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, (+)-taxifolin, and (+)-catechin. The addition of these molecules (50 μM) to organotypic cultures of mouse cerebellum explanted at postnatal day 7, when NOND reaches a physiological peak, resulted in statistically significant (two-tailed Mann–Whitney test—p < 0.001) reductions of the density of dead cells (propidium iodide+ cells/mm2) except for malvidin-3-O-glucoside. The stilbenes were less effective in reducing cell death (to 51–60%) in comparison to flavanols, (+)-taxifolin and quercetin 3-O-glucoside (to 69–72%). Thus, molecules with a -OH group in ortho position (taxifolin, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, (+)-catechin, and peonidin 3-O-glucoside) have a higher capability to limit death of cerebellar neurons. As NOND is apoptotic, we speculate that PPs act by inhibiting executioner caspase 3. Full article
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Article
Prevention of 7-Ketocholesterol-Induced Overproduction of Reactive Oxygen Species, Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Cell Death with Major Nutrients (Polyphenols, ω3 and ω9 Unsaturated Fatty Acids) of the Mediterranean Diet on N2a Neuronal Cells
Molecules 2020, 25(10), 2296; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102296 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1593
Abstract
The brain, which is a cholesterol-rich organ, can be subject to oxidative stress in a variety of pathophysiological conditions, age-related diseases and some rare pathologies. This can lead to the formation of 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), a toxic derivative of cholesterol mainly produced by auto-oxidation. [...] Read more.
The brain, which is a cholesterol-rich organ, can be subject to oxidative stress in a variety of pathophysiological conditions, age-related diseases and some rare pathologies. This can lead to the formation of 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), a toxic derivative of cholesterol mainly produced by auto-oxidation. So, preventing the neuronal toxicity of 7KC is an important issue to avoid brain damage. As there are numerous data in favor of the prevention of neurodegeneration by the Mediterranean diet, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of a series of polyphenols (resveratrol, RSV; quercetin, QCT; and apigenin, API) as well as ω3 and ω9 unsaturated fatty acids (α-linolenic acid, ALA; eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA; docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, and oleic acid, OA) widely present in this diet, to prevent 7KC (50 µM)-induced dysfunction of N2a neuronal cells. When polyphenols and fatty acids were used at non-toxic concentrations (polyphenols: ≤6.25 µM; fatty acids: ≤25 µM) as defined by the fluorescein diacetate assay, they greatly reduce 7KC-induced toxicity. The cytoprotective effects observed with polyphenols and fatty acids were comparable to those of α-tocopherol (400 µM) used as a reference. These polyphenols and fatty acids attenuate the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and the 7KC-induced drop in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) measured by flow cytometry after dihydroethidium and DiOC6(3) staining, respectively. Moreover, the studied polyphenols and fatty acids reduced plasma membrane permeability considered as a criterion for cell death measured by flow cytometry after propidium iodide staining. Our data show that polyphenols (RSV, QCT and API) as well as ω3 and ω9 unsaturated fatty acids (ALA, EPA, DHA and OA) are potent cytoprotective agents against 7KC-induced neurotoxicity in N2a cells. Their cytoprotective effects could partly explain the benefits of the Mediterranean diet on human health, particularly in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
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Review

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Review
The Neuroprotective Role of Polydatin: Neuropharmacological Mechanisms, Molecular Targets, Therapeutic Potentials, and Clinical Perspective
Molecules 2021, 26(19), 5985; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26195985 - 02 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1280
Abstract
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) are one of the leading causes of death and disability in humans. From a mechanistic perspective, the complexity of pathophysiological mechanisms contributes to NDDs. Therefore, there is an urgency to provide novel multi-target agents towards the simultaneous modulation of dysregulated [...] Read more.
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) are one of the leading causes of death and disability in humans. From a mechanistic perspective, the complexity of pathophysiological mechanisms contributes to NDDs. Therefore, there is an urgency to provide novel multi-target agents towards the simultaneous modulation of dysregulated pathways against NDDs. Besides, their lack of effectiveness and associated side effects have contributed to the lack of conventional therapies as suitable therapeutic agents. Prevailing reports have introduced plant secondary metabolites as promising multi-target agents in combating NDDs. Polydatin is a natural phenolic compound, employing potential mechanisms in fighting NDDs. It is considered an auspicious phytochemical in modulating neuroinflammatory/apoptotic/autophagy/oxidative stress signaling mediators such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), NF-E2–related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response elements (ARE), matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), interleukins (ILs), phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt), and the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Accordingly, polydatin potentially counteracts Alzheimer’s disease, cognition/memory dysfunction, Parkinson’s disease, brain/spinal cord injuries, ischemic stroke, and miscellaneous neuronal dysfunctionalities. The present study provides all of the neuroprotective mechanisms of polydatin in various NDDs. Additionally, the novel delivery systems of polydatin are provided regarding increasing its safety, solubility, bioavailability, and efficacy, as well as developing a long-lasting therapeutic concentration of polydatin in the central nervous system, possessing fewer side effects. Full article
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Review
Effects of Wine Components in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Molecules 2021, 26(19), 5891; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26195891 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
With the rising prevalence of Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) worldwide, and the rising cost of treatment with novel biological drugs, there is an increasing interest in various diets and natural foods as a potential way to control/modulate IBD. As recent data indicates that [...] Read more.
With the rising prevalence of Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) worldwide, and the rising cost of treatment with novel biological drugs, there is an increasing interest in various diets and natural foods as a potential way to control/modulate IBD. As recent data indicates that diet can modify the metabolic responses essential for the resolution of inflammation, and as wine compounds have been shown to provide substantial anti-inflammatory effect, in this review we aimed to discuss the current evidence concerning the impact of biological compounds present in wine on IBD. A number of preclinical studies brought forth strong evidence on the mechanisms by which molecules in wine, such as resveratrol or piceatannol, provide their anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-tumor, and microbiota-modulation effects. However, concerning the effects of alcohol, it is still unclear how the amount of ethanol ingested within the framework of moderate wine consumption (1–2 glasses a day) affects patients with IBD, as human studies regarding the effects of wine on patients with IBD are scarce. Nevertheless, available evidence justifies the conductance of large-scale RCT trials on human subjects that will finally elucidate whether wine can offer real benefits to the IBD population. Full article
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Review
Wine, Polyphenols, and Mediterranean Diets. What Else Is There to Say?
Molecules 2021, 26(18), 5537; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185537 - 12 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
A considerable amount of literature has been published claiming the cardiovascular benefits of moderate (red) wine drinking, which has been considered a distinguishing trait of the Mediterranean diet. Indeed, red wine contains relevant amounts of polyphenols, for which evidence of their biological activity [...] Read more.
A considerable amount of literature has been published claiming the cardiovascular benefits of moderate (red) wine drinking, which has been considered a distinguishing trait of the Mediterranean diet. Indeed, red wine contains relevant amounts of polyphenols, for which evidence of their biological activity and positive health effects are abundant; however, it is also well-known that alcohol, even at a low level of intake, may have severe consequences for health. Among others, it is directly related to a number of non-communicable diseases, like liver cirrhosis or diverse types of cancer. The IARC classifies alcohol as a Group 1 carcinogen, causally associated with the development of cancers of the upper digestive tract and liver, and, with sufficient evidence, can be positively associated with colorectum and female breast cancer. In these circumstances, it is tricky, if not irresponsible, to spread any message on the benefits of moderate wine drinking, about which no actual consensus exists. It should be further considered that other hallmarks of the Mediterranean diet are the richness in virgin olive oil, fruits, grains, and vegetables, which are also good sources of polyphenols and other phytochemicals, and lack the risks of wine. All of these aspects are reviewed in this article. Full article
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Review
Wine Intake in the Framework of a Mediterranean Diet and Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases: A Short Literature Review of the Last 5 Years
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5045; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215045 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
Dietary habits are a determining factor of the higher incidence and prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). In the aim to find a possible preventive and intervention strategy, the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been proposed as an effective approach. Within the MedDiet, moderate [...] Read more.
Dietary habits are a determining factor of the higher incidence and prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). In the aim to find a possible preventive and intervention strategy, the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been proposed as an effective approach. Within the MedDiet, moderate wine consumption with meals is a positive item in the MedDiet score; however, recent studies have reported a dose-response association between alcohol consumption and higher risk of a large number of NCDs. This review aimed to evaluate the association between NCDs and wine consumption in the framework of the MedDiet, with a simple review of 22 studies of the highest-level literature published over the last five years. We found that the information regarding the effects of wine in different health outcomes has not varied widely over the past five years, finding inconclusive results among the studies evaluated. Most of the literature agrees that light to moderate wine intake seems to have beneficial effects to some extent in NCDs, such as hypertension, cancer, dyslipidemia and dementia, but no definitive recommendations can be made on a specific dose intake that can benefit most diseases. Full article
Review
Wine’s Phenolic Compounds and Health: A Pythagorean View
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4105; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184105 - 08 Sep 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1297
Abstract
In support of the J curve that describes the association between wine consumption and all-cause mortality, researchers and the lay press often advocate the health benefits of (poly)phenol consumption via red wine intake and cite the vast amount of in vitro literature that [...] Read more.
In support of the J curve that describes the association between wine consumption and all-cause mortality, researchers and the lay press often advocate the health benefits of (poly)phenol consumption via red wine intake and cite the vast amount of in vitro literature that would corroborate the hypothesis. Other researchers dismiss such evidence and call for total abstention. In this review, we take a skeptical, Pythagorean stance and we critically try to move the debate forward by pointing the readers to the many pitfalls of red wine (poly)phenol research, which we arbitrarily treat as if they were pharmacological agents. We conclude that, after 30 years of dedicated research and despite the considerable expenditure, we still lack solid, “pharmacological”, human evidence to confirm wine (poly)phenols’ biological actions. Future research will eventually clarify their activities and will back the current recommendations of responsibly drinking moderate amounts of wine with meals. Full article
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Review
Wine Consumption and Oral Cavity Cancer: Friend or Foe, Two Faces of Janus
Molecules 2020, 25(11), 2569; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25112569 - 31 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2026
Abstract
The health benefits of moderate wine consumption have been extensively studied during the last few decades. Some studies have demonstrated protective associations between moderate drinking and several diseases including oral cavity cancer (OCC). However, due to the various adverse effects related to ethanol [...] Read more.
The health benefits of moderate wine consumption have been extensively studied during the last few decades. Some studies have demonstrated protective associations between moderate drinking and several diseases including oral cavity cancer (OCC). However, due to the various adverse effects related to ethanol content, the recommendation of moderate wine consumption has been controversial. The polyphenolic components of wine contribute to its beneficial effects with different biological pathways, including antioxidant, lipid regulating and anti-inflammatory effects. On the other hand, in the oral cavity, ethanol is oxidized to form acetaldehyde, a metabolite with genotoxic properties. This review is a critical compilation of both the beneficial and the detrimental effects of wine consumption on OCC. Full article
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