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Special Issue "Synthesis and Structure of Heterocyclic and Organometallic Compounds"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Antal Csámpai
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Guest Editor
Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE), Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A, 1117 Budapest, Hungary
Interests: Heterocyclic chemistry; Organometallic chemistry of transition metals; NMR spectroscopy; Stereochemistry; Molecular modelling; Antiproliferative compounds; Cross coupling reactions; Organocatalysis
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As a result of the extremely wide range of structural diversity associated with versatile synthetic accessibility and reactivity, heterocyclic and organometallic compounds, as well as their hybrid combinations are of pronounced interest in many research areas, extending our basic knowledge in chemistry and providing an extremely wide scope of results that find application in everyday life. Heterocycles and organometallics are extensively used, for example, as pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, dyes, sensors and selectors, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, chiral pools, catalysts, and ligands. Emblematic bioactive natural products, for example, antibiotics (such as penicillin and cephalosporin) and alkaloids (such as vinblastine, morphine, reserpine, and so on), incorporate heterocyclic skeletons. Heterocyclic and organometallic chemistry can be regarded as partly overlapping large domains of chemical research, practically comprising not only a plethora of well-established synthetic methods, structure–reactivity correlations, and structural analyses supported by theoretical modelling studies, but an infinite range of intriguing, unrefined, and, consequently, underexplored approaches and methodologies associated with challenging unsolved synthetic and structural problems.

This Special Issue aims to collect original contributions or mini-reviews on the topics covering synthesis, application, structural elucidation, and theoretical modelling studies analyzing reactivity, with special attention to the catalytic activity of heterocyclic and organometallic compounds. There is no restriction on the length of the papers.

Prof. Antal Csámpai
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Annulation reactions
  • Synthesis of organometallics
  • Selective functionalizations
  • Chemical reactivity
  • Structural elucidation
  • Catalysis
  • Enantioselective syntheses
  • Biological activity
  • Theoretical modelling

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Unsymmetrically-Substituted 5,12-dihydrodibenzo[b,f][1,4]diazocine-6,11-dione Scaffold—A Useful Tool for Bioactive Molecules Design
Molecules 2020, 25(12), 2855; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122855 - 20 Jun 2020
Abstract
Unsymmetrically N-substituted and N,N’-disubstituted 5,12-dihydrodibenzo [b,f][1,4]diazocine-6,11-diones were synthesized in the new protocol. The desired modifications of the dibenzodiazocine scaffold were introduced at the stages of proper selection of building blocks as well as post-cyclization modifications with alkylation [...] Read more.
Unsymmetrically N-substituted and N,N’-disubstituted 5,12-dihydrodibenzo [b,f][1,4]diazocine-6,11-diones were synthesized in the new protocol. The desired modifications of the dibenzodiazocine scaffold were introduced at the stages of proper selection of building blocks as well as post-cyclization modifications with alkylation or acylation agents, expanding the structural diversity and possible applications of synthesized molecules. The extension of developed method resulted in the synthesis of novel: tricyclic 5,10-dihydrobenzo[b]thieno[3,4-f][1,4]diazocine-4,11-dione scaffold and fused pentacyclic framework possessing two benzodiazocine rings within its structure. Additionally, the unprecedented rearrangement of 5,12-dihydrodibenzo[b,f][1,4]diazocine-6,11-diones to 2-(2-aminophenyl)isoindoline-1,3-diones was observed under the basic conditions in the presence of sodium hydride for secondary dilactams. The structures of nine synthesized products have been established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Detailed crystallographic analysis of the investigated tri- and pentacyclic systems has shed more light on their structural features. One cell line derived from non-cancerous cells (EUFA30—human fibroblasts) and three tumor cells (U87—human primary glioblastoma, HeLa—cervix adenocarcinoma, BICR18—laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma) were used to determine the cytotoxic effect of the newly synthesized compounds. Although these compounds showed a relatively weak cytotoxic effect, the framework obtained for 5,12-dihydrodibenzo[b,f][1,4]diazocine-6,11-dione could serve as a convenient privilege structure for the design and development of novel bioactive molecules suitable for drug design, development and optimization programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Structure of Heterocyclic and Organometallic Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Polycondensed Partly Saturated β-Carbolines Including Ferrocene Derivatives: Synthesis, DFT-Supported Structural Analysis, Mechanism of Some Diastereoselective Transformations and a Preliminary Study of their In Vitro Antiproliferative Effects
Molecules 2020, 25(7), 1599; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25071599 - 31 Mar 2020
Abstract
Use of a Pictet-Spengler reaction of tryptamine and l-tryptophan methyl ester and subsequent reduction of the nitro group followed by further cyclocondensation with aryl aldehydes and formyl–substituted carboxylic acids, including ferrocene-based components, furnished a series of diastereomeric 6-aryl-substituted 5,6,8,9,14,14b-hexahydroindolo[2′,3′:3,4]pyrido[1-c]-quinazolines and [...] Read more.
Use of a Pictet-Spengler reaction of tryptamine and l-tryptophan methyl ester and subsequent reduction of the nitro group followed by further cyclocondensation with aryl aldehydes and formyl–substituted carboxylic acids, including ferrocene-based components, furnished a series of diastereomeric 6-aryl-substituted 5,6,8,9,14,14b-hexahydroindolo[2′,3′:3,4]pyrido[1-c]-quinazolines and 5,5b,17,18-tetrahydroindolo[2′,3′:3,4]pyrido[1,2-c]isoindolo[2,1-a]quinazolin-11-(15bH)-ones with the elements of central-, planar and conformational chirality. The relative configuration and the conformations of the novel polycyclic indole derivatives were determined by 1H- and 13C-NMR methods supplemented by comparative DFT analysis of the possible diastereomers. The structure of one of the pentacyclic methyl esters with defined absolute configuration “S” was also confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction measurement. Accounting for the characteristic substituent-dependent diastereoselective formation of the products multistep mechanisms were proposed on the basis of the results of DFT modeling. Preliminary in vitro cytotoxic assays of the products revealed moderate-to-significant antiproliferative effects against PANC-1-, COLO-205-, A-2058 and EBC-1 cell lines that proved to be highly dependent on the stereostructure and on the substitution pattern of the pending aryl substituent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Structure of Heterocyclic and Organometallic Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of New C-3 Substituted Kynurenic Acid Derivatives
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040937 - 19 Feb 2020
Abstract
The application of kynurenic acid (KYNA) as an electron-rich aromatic system in the modified Mannich reaction has been examined. The extension possibility of the reaction was tested by using amines occurring in a number of bioactive products, such as morpholine, piperidine, or N [...] Read more.
The application of kynurenic acid (KYNA) as an electron-rich aromatic system in the modified Mannich reaction has been examined. The extension possibility of the reaction was tested by using amines occurring in a number of bioactive products, such as morpholine, piperidine, or N-methylpiperazine and aldehydes of markedly different reactivities, like formaldehyde and benzaldehyde. The influence of substituents attached to position 3 on the aminoalkylation was also investigated. Thus, reactions of 3-carbamoyl-substituted precursors with tertiary amine containing side-chains were also tested to afford new KYNA derivatives with two potential cationic centers. By means of NMR spectroscopic measurements, supported by DFT calculations, the dominant tautomer form of KYNA derivatives was also determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Structure of Heterocyclic and Organometallic Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Application of 1,2-Aminoalcohols with Neoisopulegol-Based Octahydrobenzofuran Core
Molecules 2020, 25(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25010021 - 19 Dec 2019
Abstract
A library of 1,2-aminoalcohol derivatives with a neoisopulegol-based octahydrobenzofuran core was developed and applied as chiral catalysts in the addition of diethylzinc to benzaldehyde. The allylic chlorination of (+)-neoisopulegol, derived from natural (–)-isopulegol followed by cyclization, gave the key methyleneoctahydrobenzofuran intermediate. The stereoselective [...] Read more.
A library of 1,2-aminoalcohol derivatives with a neoisopulegol-based octahydrobenzofuran core was developed and applied as chiral catalysts in the addition of diethylzinc to benzaldehyde. The allylic chlorination of (+)-neoisopulegol, derived from natural (–)-isopulegol followed by cyclization, gave the key methyleneoctahydrobenzofuran intermediate. The stereoselective epoxidation of the key intermediate and subsequent oxirane ring opening with primary amines afforded the required 1,2-aminoalcohols. The ring closure of the secondary amine analogues with formaldehyde provided spiro-oxazolidine ring systems. The dihydroxylation of the methylenetetrahydrofuran moiety with OsO4/NMO (4-methylmorpholine N-oxide) resulted in the formation of a neoisopulegol-based diol in a highly stereoselective reaction. The antimicrobial activity of both the aminoalcohol derivatives and the diol was also explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Structure of Heterocyclic and Organometallic Compounds)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Synthesis, Structure and In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Novel Cinchona—Chalcone Hybrids with 1,4-Disubstituted- and 1,5-Disubstituted 1,2,3-Triazole Linkers
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4077; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224077 - 11 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
By means of copper(I)-and ruthenium(II)-catalyzed click reactions of quinine- and quinidine-derived alkynes with azide-substituted chalcones a systematic series of novel cinchona-chalcone hybrid compounds, containing 1,4-disubstituted- and 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole linkers, were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity on four human malignant cell lines [...] Read more.
By means of copper(I)-and ruthenium(II)-catalyzed click reactions of quinine- and quinidine-derived alkynes with azide-substituted chalcones a systematic series of novel cinchona-chalcone hybrid compounds, containing 1,4-disubstituted- and 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole linkers, were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity on four human malignant cell lines (PANC-1, COLO-205, A2058 and EBC-1). In most cases, the cyclization reactions were accompanied by the transition-metal-catalyzed epimerization of the C9-stereogenic centre in the cinchona fragment. The results of the in vitro assays disclosed that all the prepared hybrids exhibit marked cytotoxicity in concentrations of low micromolar range, while the C9-epimerized model comprising quinidine- and (E)-1-(4-(3-oxo-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-1-en-1-yl)phenyl) fragments, connected by 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole linker, and can be regarded as the most potent lead of which activity is probably associated with a limited conformational space allowing for the adoption of a relatively rigid well-defined conformation identified by DFT modelling. The mechanism of action of this hybrid along with that of a model with markedly decreased activity were approached by comparative cell-cycle analyses in PANC-1 cells. These studies disclosed that the hybrid of enhanced antiproliferative activity exerts significantly more extensive inhibitory effects in subG1, S and G2/M phases than does the less cytotoxic counterpart. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Structure of Heterocyclic and Organometallic Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle
Solvent-Free C-3 Coupling of Azaindoles with Cyclic Imines
Molecules 2019, 24(19), 3578; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24193578 - 04 Oct 2019
Abstract
By direct coupling 7-azaindole and cyclic imines, such as 3,4-dihydroisoquinoline, 6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine, 3,4-dihydro-β-carboline, and 4,5-dihydro-3H-benz[c]azepine, new 3-substituted 7-azaindole derivatives have been synthesized. The reaction was extended to 4-azaindoles and 6-azaindoles, as electron-rich aromatic compounds. The lowest reactivity was [...] Read more.
By direct coupling 7-azaindole and cyclic imines, such as 3,4-dihydroisoquinoline, 6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine, 3,4-dihydro-β-carboline, and 4,5-dihydro-3H-benz[c]azepine, new 3-substituted 7-azaindole derivatives have been synthesized. The reaction was extended to 4-azaindoles and 6-azaindoles, as electron-rich aromatic compounds. The lowest reactivity was observed in the case of C-3 substitution of 5-azaindole. In this case, the aza-Friedel-Crafts reaction took place by using 10 mol % of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA) as the catalyst. The role of the acid catalyst can be explained by the different pKa values of the azaindoles. All reactions were performed in solvent-free conditions by using both classical heating and microwave irradiation. In all cases, microwave heating proved to be more convenient to synthesize new C-3-substituted azaindole derivatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Structure of Heterocyclic and Organometallic Compounds)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Dithieno[1,4]thiazines and Bis[1]benzothieno[1,4]thiazines—Organometallic Synthesis and Functionalization of Electron Density Enriched Congeners of Phenothiazine
Molecules 2020, 25(9), 2180; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092180 - 07 May 2020
Abstract
This mini-review summarizes the syntheses and functionalizations of dithieno[1,4]thiazines and bis[1]benzothieno[1,4]thiazines, both electron density-enriched congeners of phenothiazines with remarkable electronic properties. Diversity-oriented, straightforward, and efficient syntheses, including versatile one-pot processes, have been developed for the anellated 1,4-thiazines as well as various functionalization for [...] Read more.
This mini-review summarizes the syntheses and functionalizations of dithieno[1,4]thiazines and bis[1]benzothieno[1,4]thiazines, both electron density-enriched congeners of phenothiazines with remarkable electronic properties. Diversity-oriented, straightforward, and efficient syntheses, including versatile one-pot processes, have been developed for the anellated 1,4-thiazines as well as various functionalization for the expansion of the π-systems. Thereby, syntheses of different regioisomers depending on the (benzo)thieno-thiazine anellation are discussed, which exert a deep impact on the electronic properties. The tunable photophysical and electrochemical properties of dithieno[1,4]thiazines and bis[1]benzothieno[1,4]thiazines outscore phenothiazines on many points and promise an enormous potential in molecular electronics and applications beyond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Structure of Heterocyclic and Organometallic Compounds)
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