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Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 6th International Conference on Biotechnology and Bioengineering (6-ICBB 2017)"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 July 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Antonio Trincone

Istituto di Chimica Biomolecolare, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Comprensorio Olivetti, Edificio 70, Via Campi Flegrei 34, I-80078 Pozzuoli, Napoli, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +39 081 8041770
Interests: biocatalysis; marine enzymes; marine glycosidases; marine biotechnology; oligosaccharides

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 6th International Conference on Biotechnology and Bioengineering (6-ICBB 2017) will be held in Offenburg, Germany, 26–28 September, 2017. The conference is co-organized by the Asia-Pacific Association of Science, Engineering and Technology (APASET), the Offenburg University of Applied Sciences, the University of Catania, the Peter Osypka Institute for Pacing and Ablation

The conference has been designed to provide an innovative and comprehensive overview of biotechnology and bioengineering, and a focus will be given to major research advances, including: New Approaches and Concepts in Biotechnology; Cell and Immunology; Genomics and Molecular Biology; Enzyme and Protein Engineering; Biomedicine, Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Toxicology; Bioinformatics and Systems Biology; Biomedical Engineering; Biomedical Techniques and Technologies, and other related aspects.

More information about the conference can be found at http://www.icbb.hs-offenburg.de/

Participants of the conference are cordially invited to contribute original research papers or reviews to this Special Issue of Molecules. This Special Issue welcomes submission of previously unpublished manuscripts from original work on all aspects of molecular biology, molecular medicine, natural product chemistry, etc.

Dr. Antonio Trincone
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Quantification of Neoagaro-Oligosaccharide Production through Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Its Anti-Oxidant Activities
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1354; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061354
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 2 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1017 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neoagaro-oligosaccharides (NAOS) have health benefits that are related to their amount and degree of polymerization (DP). However, the current methods that are used to quantify enzymatically released NAOS are un-specific and time-consuming. Agar has been extracted from Gelidium amansii and has been degraded
[...] Read more.
Neoagaro-oligosaccharides (NAOS) have health benefits that are related to their amount and degree of polymerization (DP). However, the current methods that are used to quantify enzymatically released NAOS are un-specific and time-consuming. Agar has been extracted from Gelidium amansii and has been degraded by AgaXa (a recombinant β-agarase). Polysaccharide analysis using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) has been adapted in order to quantify NAOS. In addition, the anti-oxidant activity of the degraded samples has been assessed. We have found that the PACE method provided sensitive, precise, and accurate quantification for each of the six NAOS samples. PACE has revealed that the DP of the enzymatic products from the AgaXa digestion were mainly neoagaro-octaose and neoagaro-decaose. The degraded samples exhibited increased radical-scavenging activity towards 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline sulfonic acid) radicals. While the anti-oxidant activity may have been from NAOS activity and contributions from neoagaro-octaose and neoagaro-decaose. The adapted PACE method that has been presented here is promising for large sample analysis during quality control and for characterizing novel β-agarase degradation mechanisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Detailed Bactericidal Process of Ferric Oxide Nanoparticles on E. coli
Molecules 2018, 23(3), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030606
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
PDF Full-text (12104 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
While nanoparticles exert bactericidal effects through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the processes of the internalization of and the direct physical damage caused by iron oxide nanoparticles are not completely clear. We hypothesize that direct physical or mechanical damage of the
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While nanoparticles exert bactericidal effects through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the processes of the internalization of and the direct physical damage caused by iron oxide nanoparticles are not completely clear. We hypothesize that direct physical or mechanical damage of the cell membrane and cytoplasmic integrity by nanoparticles is another major cause of bacterial death besides ROS. The aim of this study is to investigate the process of the internalization of iron oxide nanoparticles, and to evaluate the effect of direct physical or mechanical damage on bacterial cell growth and death. The results demonstrate that iron oxide nanoparticles not only inhibited E. coli cell growth, but also caused bacterial cell death. Iron oxide nanoparticles produced significantly elevated ROS levels in bacteria. Transmission electronic microscopy demonstrated that iron oxide nanoparticles were internalized into and condensed the cytoplasm. Strikingly, we observed that the internalized nanoparticles caused intracellular vacuole formation, instead of simply adsorbing thereon; and formed clusters on the bacterial surface and tore up the outer cell membrane to release cytoplasm. This is the first time that the exact process of the internalization of iron oxide nanoparticles has been observed. We speculate that the intracellular vacuole formation and direct physical or mechanical damage caused by the iron oxide nanoparticles caused the bactericidal effect, along with the effects of ROS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preparative Purification of Polyphenols from Aronia melanocarpa (Chokeberry) with Cellular Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activity
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010139
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2889 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was the purification process of polyphenols from Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry), and the purification parameters were optimised by adsorption and desorption tests. By comparing adsorption and desorption ability of polyphenols from chokeberry on six kinds of macroporous resin, XAD-7
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was the purification process of polyphenols from Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry), and the purification parameters were optimised by adsorption and desorption tests. By comparing adsorption and desorption ability of polyphenols from chokeberry on six kinds of macroporous resin, XAD-7 resin was selected. Experiments prove that the best purification parameters of static adsorption and desorption were sample pH = 4.0 with 4 h of adsorption; and desorption solvent is 95% ethanol (pH = 7.0) with 2 h of desorption. The best dynamic parameters were 9.3 bed volume (BV) of sample loading amount at a feeding flow rate of 2 BV/h, and washing the column with 5.8 BV of water, followed by subsequent elution with an eluent volume of 5.0 mL at an elution flow rate of 2 BV/h. Next the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of polyphenols from chokeberry, blueberries, haskap berries was studied on HepG2 human liver cancer cells. The results show that polyphenol from chokeberry has a strong antioxidant effect. Taking into account the content of polyphenols in fruit, polyphenols from chokeberry represent a very valuable natural antioxidant source with antiproliferative products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Goat Milk with ACE Inhibitory Peptides Fermented by Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 Using Response Surface Methodology
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 2001; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22112001
Received: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1915 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present study, the incubation conditions of goat milk fermented by Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 were optimized to increase the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, EC 3.4.15.1) inhibitory activity by Box–Behnken design of response surface methodology. Incubation temperature, whey powder, and calcium lactate had
[...] Read more.
In the present study, the incubation conditions of goat milk fermented by Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 were optimized to increase the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, EC 3.4.15.1) inhibitory activity by Box–Behnken design of response surface methodology. Incubation temperature, whey powder, and calcium lactate had significant effects on ACE inhibition rate and viable counts of LB6 during incubation. The results showed that optimal conditions of fermentation were found to be 37.05 °C, 0.8% (w/w) whey powder and 0.50% (w/w) calcium lactate. ACE inhibition rate increased significantly from 71.04 ± 0.37% to 83.31 ± 0.45% and the viable counts of Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 reached to 8.03 × 107 cfu·mL−1 under the optimal conditions, which approached the predicted values 83.25% and 8.04 × 107 cfu·mL−1. The optimal fermentation conditions can be a good reference for preparing ACE inhibitory peptides from goat milk. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Enantioselective Biosynthesis of l-Phenyllactic Acid by Whole Cells of Recombinant Escherichia coli
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1966; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22111966
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: l-Phenyllactic acid (l-PLA)—a valuable building block in the pharmaceutical and chemical industry—has recently emerged as an important monomer in the composition of the novel degradable biocompatible material of polyphenyllactic acid. However, both normally chemically synthesized and naturally occurring phenyllactic
[...] Read more.
Background: l-Phenyllactic acid (l-PLA)—a valuable building block in the pharmaceutical and chemical industry—has recently emerged as an important monomer in the composition of the novel degradable biocompatible material of polyphenyllactic acid. However, both normally chemically synthesized and naturally occurring phenyllactic acid are racemic, and the product yields of reported l-PLA synthesis processes remain unsatisfactory. Methods: We developed a novel recombinant Escherichia coli strain, co-expressing l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-LDH) from Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) from Bacillus megaterium, to construct a recombinant oxidation/reduction cycle for whole-cell biotransformation of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) into chiral l-PLA in an enantioselective and continuous manner. Results: During fed-batch bioconversion with intermittent PPA feeding, l-PLA yield reached 103.8 mM, with an excellent enantiomeric excess of 99.7%. The productivity of l-PLA was as high as 5.2 mM·h−1 per OD600 (optical density at 600 nm) of whole cells. These results demonstrate the efficient production of l-PLA by the one-pot biotransformation system. Therefore, this stereoselective biocatalytic process might be a promising alternative for l-PLA production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Floral Volatile Components and Antioxidant Activity of Different Varieties of Chrysanthemum morifolium
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1790; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101790
Received: 6 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the volatile flavor compounds and antioxidant properties of the essential oil of chrysanthemums that was extracted from the fresh flowers of 10 taxa of Chrysanthemum morifolium from three species; namely Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Yellow, Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Red, Dendranthema morifolium
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This study investigated the volatile flavor compounds and antioxidant properties of the essential oil of chrysanthemums that was extracted from the fresh flowers of 10 taxa of Chrysanthemum morifolium from three species; namely Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Yellow, Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Red, Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Pink, Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) White, Pericallis hybrid Blue, Pericallis hybrid Pink, Pericallis hybrid Purple, Bellis perennis Pink, Bellis perennis Yellow, and Bellis perennis White. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was assayed by spectrophotometric analysis. The volatile flavor compounds from the fresh flowers were collected using dynamic headspace collection, analyzed using auto thermal desorber–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and identified with quantification using the external standard method. The antioxidant activities of Chrysanthemum morifolium were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assays, and the results showed that the antioxidant activity of each sample was not the same. The different varieties of fresh Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers were distinguished and classified by fingerprint similarity evaluation, principle component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis. The results showed that the floral volatile component profiles were significantly different among the different Chrysanthemum morifolium varieties. A total of 36 volatile flavor compounds were identified with eight functional groups: hydrocarbons, terpenoids, aromatic compounds, alcohols, ketones, ethers, aldehydes, and esters. Moreover, the variability among Chrysanthemum morifolium in basis to the data, and the first three principal components (PC1, PC2, and PC3) accounted for 96.509% of the total variance (55.802%, 30.599%, and 10.108%, respectively). PCA indicated that there were marked differences among Chrysanthemum morifolium varieties. The cluster analysis confirmed the results of the PCA analysis. In conclusion, the results of this study provide a basis for breeding Chrysanthemum cultivars with desirable floral scents, and they further support the view that some plants are promising sources of natural antioxidants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phytochemicals of Euphorbia lathyris L. and Their Antioxidant Activities
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1335; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081335
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (846 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to characterize the antioxidant capacities and phytochemicals such as phenolics and flavonoids in four parts of Euphorbia lathyris L. HPLC was employed to detect the type and content of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the root, stem,
[...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to characterize the antioxidant capacities and phytochemicals such as phenolics and flavonoids in four parts of Euphorbia lathyris L. HPLC was employed to detect the type and content of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the root, stem, seed, and testa of the plant. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were different among various parts of E. lathyris. The highest TPC were found in the testa (290.46 ± 15.09 mg of gallic acid equiv/100 g dry weight (DW)). However, the root contained the highest TFC (215.68 ± 3.10 mg of rutin equiv/g DW). Of the different antioxidant activities detected, DPPH free radical scavenging activity was highest in the testa (61.29 ± 0.29 mmol Trolox/100 g DW), but the highest FRAP antioxidant activity was found in the seed (1131.25 ± 58.68 mg FeSO4/100 g DW of free compounds and 1927.43 ± 52.13 mg FeSO4/100 g DW of bound compounds). There was a positive correlation between the total phenolic contents and DPPH free radical scavenging activity in different parts of E. lathyris. Full article
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