Special Issue "Petrology, Geochemistry and Mineralogy of the Mantle as Tools to Read Messages from the Earth’s Interior"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 August 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Shoji Arai

Department of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: petrology, geochemistry and mineralogy of mantle-derived rocks

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mantle-derived rocks have been very important for us as a source of direct information about chemistry and processes in the deep part of Earth. Geochemistry and mineralogy of these materials especially provide us with excellent tool to unravel mantle processes including partial melting, melt extraction, melt-rock interaction, metallogeny, metasomatism and metamorphism. The mantle igneous processes produce various rocks such as peridotites and chromitites, which are modified to various degrees by subsequent metasomatism and metamorphism. Those deep processes keenly vary in response to the difference in tectonic settings. The mantle-derived rocks and their metamorphic equivalents are quite complicated and we need to accumulate high-quality observations and data to decipher the enigmas that happen in the deep part of Earth. Serpentinization processes of the mantle peridotites have been also attracting interests of geochemists, seismologists, and even biologists. The information from the mantle materials has been thus getting increasingly more important! This special issue aims at timely publication of original data and ideas obtained from the mantle minerals and rocks (especially peridotites, serpentinites and chromitites). We encourage any scientists of these disciplines to publish their results in this Special Issue on this occasion.

Prof. Dr. Shoji Arai
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Peridotites
  • Mantle minerals
  • Chromitites
  • Serpentinites
  • Partial melting
  • Peridotite–melt reaction
  • Ophiolites
  • Xenoliths

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle An Alternative Scenario on the Origin of Ultra-High Pressure (UHP) and Super-Reduced (SuR) Minerals in Ophiolitic Chromitites: A Case Study from the Mercedita Deposit (Eastern Cuba)
Minerals 2018, 8(10), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8100433
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
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Abstract
The origin of the assemblage of ultra-high pressure (UHP), super-reduced (SuR) and several crustally derived phases in ophiolitic chromitites is still hotly debated. In this paper, we report, for the first time, this assemblage of phases in ophiolitic chromitites of the Caribbean. We
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The origin of the assemblage of ultra-high pressure (UHP), super-reduced (SuR) and several crustally derived phases in ophiolitic chromitites is still hotly debated. In this paper, we report, for the first time, this assemblage of phases in ophiolitic chromitites of the Caribbean. We studied the Mercedita chromitite deposit in the eastern Cuban ophiolitic complexes. The mineral phases were characterized using microRaman spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy with a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), X-ray microdiffraction and electron microprobe analyses. Mineral concentrates were prepared using hydroseparation techniques. We have identified oriented clinopyroxene lamellae in chromite, oriented rutile lamellae in chromite, moissanite hosted in the altered matrix of the chromitite, graphite-like amorphous carbon, corundum and SiO2 hosted in healed fractures in chromite grains, and native Cu and Fe–Mn alloy recovered in heavy-mineral concentrates obtained by hydroseparation. This assemblage may correspond to UHP-SuR conditions, implying recycling of chromitite in the mantle or formation of the chromite grains at deep mantle depths, followed by emplacement at a shallow level in the mantle. However, the chromitite bodies contain gabbro sills oriented parallel to the elongation of the chromitite lenses, and these show no evidence of HP/UHP metamorphism. Therefore, the identified “exotic” phases may not be indicative of UHP. They formed independently as oriented clinopyroxene lamellae in chromite during cooling (clinopyroxene and rutile), in super-reduced microenvironments during the serpentinization processes, and by transference of subducted crustal material to the mantle wedge via cold plumes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Petrology of Peridotites and Nd-Sr Isotopic Composition of Their Clinopyroxenes from the Middle Andaman Ophiolite, India
Minerals 2018, 8(9), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8090410
Received: 26 May 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
The Andaman Ophiolite, India, is located at the southeastern end of the Tethyan ophiolites. We examine petrology and mineralogy of two lherzolites and a completely serpentinized dunite associated with lherzolite from the middle Andaman Island. Major and trace element compositions of minerals in
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The Andaman Ophiolite, India, is located at the southeastern end of the Tethyan ophiolites. We examine petrology and mineralogy of two lherzolites and a completely serpentinized dunite associated with lherzolite from the middle Andaman Island. Major and trace element compositions of minerals in the lherzolites suggest their residual origin after low-degree of partial melting with less flux infiltration, and are similar to those of abyssal peridotites recovered from mid-ocean ridges. The dunite with spinels having low-Cr/(Cr + Al) ratio was formed by interaction between peridotite and mid-ocean ridge basalt-like melt. The 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic systematics of clinopyroxenes of the two lherzolites are consistent with MORB-type mantle source. Petrology and light rare earth element (LREE)-depleted patterns of clinopyroxene from the studied lhezolites are the same as those from some of the western Tethyan ophiolites. The age-corrected initial εNd values of the Tethyan lherzolite clinopyroxenes with LREE-depleted patterns are likely to be consistent with the depleted mantle evolution line. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dual Geochemical Characteristics for the Basic Intrusions in the Yangtze Block, South China: New Evidence for the Breakup of Rodinia
Minerals 2018, 8(6), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8060228
Received: 17 March 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 28 May 2018
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Abstract
Neoproterozoic intraplate magmatic rocks are widespread in the Yangtze Block (YZB). The contrasting interpretations on their petrogenesis and tectonic evolution induce stimulating discussions on the coeval tectonic setting, including the two competing models of rift-related (R-model) and arc-related (A-model). Their main evidence is
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Neoproterozoic intraplate magmatic rocks are widespread in the Yangtze Block (YZB). The contrasting interpretations on their petrogenesis and tectonic evolution induce stimulating discussions on the coeval tectonic setting, including the two competing models of rift-related (R-model) and arc-related (A-model). Their main evidence is dominantly from felsic magmatic rocks. In contrast, the less evolved basic rocks are more suitable for tectonic setting discrimination. Here we study the Longtanqing basic intrusions (LTQ) that are exposed to the central part of the N–S trending Kangdian rift in the western YZB, by detailed geochemical and geochronological investigations. Zircon U–Pb dating of the two diabases from LTQ yield identical ages within error of 777 ± 17 Ma and 780 ± 5.3 Ma, respectively. LTQ rocks are characterized by low SiO2 (49.83–50.71 wt %), high MgO (5.91–6.53 wt %), and Cr (140–150 ppm) contents, supporting the significant mantle affinity. They also display dual geochemical characteristics, including a series of features of continental within-plate basalts (WPB, Ti/V = 37.3–47.5, Zr/Y = 3.4–3.8, Ta/Hf = 0.19–0.23), and the typical signatures of island arc basalt (IAB), such as highly depleted in HFSE and HREE, and enriched in LREE and LILE. Most zircon εHf(t) values are positive (1.6–9.4) while the corresponding Hf depleted mantle model ages (TDM1) range from 1.0 Ga to 1.3 Ga. In combination with the occurrence of inherited zircons (991–1190 Ma), it is suggested that their sources are dominantly derived from the lithospheric mantle that was reconstructed in the late Mesoproterozoic. Thus, LTQ is mainly formed by partial melting of the enriched lithospheric mantle, and subsequently assimilated by a juvenile crust during upwelling. The melt compositions are controlled by different degrees of the crystal fractionation of the dominant clinopyroxene and plagioclase with minor amphibole under high fO2 conditions. Combined with previous geochronological and geochemical data in the YZB, our new results support the theory that the R-model can be responsible for the petrogenesis of Neoproterozoic magmatic rocks in South China. Full article
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Oxidation States of Fe in Constituent Minerals of a Spinel Lherzolite Xenolith from the Tariat Depression, Mongolia: The Significance of Fe3+ in Olivine
Minerals 2018, 8(5), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8050204
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 6 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
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Abstract
The oxidation states of Fe within olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and spinel in a spinel lherzolite xenolith from the Tariat Depression, Mongolia were investigated using 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy to evaluate the redox condition of the upper mantle from which the Tariat spinel lherzolite
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The oxidation states of Fe within olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and spinel in a spinel lherzolite xenolith from the Tariat Depression, Mongolia were investigated using 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy to evaluate the redox condition of the upper mantle from which the Tariat spinel lherzolite xenolith was derived. The purity of separated minerals for the Mössbauer spectroscopic analysis was examined using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Average Fo and Fe contents of olivine at the core part of the xenolith are 89.9(4) mol % and 0.195(3) atoms per formula unit, respectively. The Fe3+/ΣFe values of the olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and spinel, determined by Mössbauer spectroscopic analysis, are 0.027(2), 0.15(1), 0.26(3), and 0.34(5), respectively. The Mössbauer spectrum of olivine consists of two doublets assigned to Fe2+ at the octahedral sites and one doublet, with I.S. of 0.40(2) mm/s and Q.S. of 0.69(3) mm/s assigned to Fe3+ at the octahedral site. Since the Tariat spinel lherzolite xenolith in this study shows no evidence of metasomatism or thermal alteration, the existence of a small amount of Fe3+ in olivine and the fairly high Fe3+ contents of clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and spinel imply that the upper mantle under the Tariat area was in a rather oxidized condition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Application of Scanning Precession Electron Diffraction in the Transmission Electron Microscope to the Characterization of Deformation in Wadsleyite and Ringwoodite
Minerals 2018, 8(4), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8040153
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 7 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
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Abstract
The mantle transition zone represents an important layer in the interior of the Earth that is characterized by phase transformations of olivine polymorphs. Constraining the rheology difference between wadsleyite and ringwoodite is important in determining the viscosity contrast at a depth of 520
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The mantle transition zone represents an important layer in the interior of the Earth that is characterized by phase transformations of olivine polymorphs. Constraining the rheology difference between wadsleyite and ringwoodite is important in determining the viscosity contrast at a depth of 520 km. In this study, we perform a post-mortem by transmission electron microscopy of a wadsleyite + ringwoodite aggregate, deformed at high-pressure and high-temperature, in a deformation-DIA apparatus. From orientation maps acquired by scanning precession electron diffraction, we calculate local misorientations and misorientation-gradients, which are used as a proxy of plastic strain. We show that at 17.3 GPa, 1700 K, the plastic responses of wadsleyite and ringwoodite are comparable, although recovery by subgrain boundary migration is more easily activated in wadsleyite. Full article
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Figure 1a

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