Special Issue "Emerging Insights into Serpentinites"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Basilios Tsikouras
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Physical and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam
Interests: petrogenetic processes in ophiolites; formation of abiotic methane in serpentinites; quality assessment of aggregates and industrial minerals; soil and environmental geochemistry; genesis of chromitites and associated platinum group minerals; study of asbestos minerals and fibers
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Shoji Arai
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
Interests: mantle petrology; ophiolite genesis; chromite ore genesis; geochemistry and mineralogy of mantle-derived rocks
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Ioannis Rigopoulos
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus
Interests: CO2 mineralization; nanomaterials; construction aggregates; environmentally-friendly building materials; ophiolites

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Serpentinisation, one of the most reducing geochemical processes, has attracted the interest of scientists with diverse disciplines and multilateral approaches. Serpentinites are commonly related to ultramafic lithologies on Earth and other planets of our solar system, with their conditions of formation ranging from the seafloor and/or on-land, present-day alteration to high pressure and temperature metamorphism. Over the past years, there has been an increasing interest in the scientific importance of serpentinites, since these rocks may shed light in the mechanism of subduction zones, tectonics related to their rheological properties, the circulation of fluids in the mantle and mantle wedges, the evolution of post- and syn-magmatic processes in arcs, and the genesis of ore deposits. Chrysotile, one of the serpentine polymorphs, belongs to asbestos, which is still a major industrial group of minerals although a well-known carcinogenic material. It may be naturally occurring in several places dominated by serpentinites, thus imposing potential risks to the residential health or it can be found in several construction aggregates and other industrial products or wastes, hence being an important adverse factor for the occupational health. Furthermore, serpentinites have long been considered potential rocks for the mineralization of CO2 due to their global abundance and high content in Mg-silicates. Moreover, the remarkably reducing conditions of serpentinisation are capable of producing fluids enriched in hydrogen and methane, which are essential compounds for the generation of biomass and the metabolic energy of several microorganisms. Therefore, the study of serpentinites has intrigued numerous contemporary, multidisciplinary researches regarding the origin of life on Earth and other planets, the greenhouse gas budget and the synthesis of unconventional, abiotic hydrocarbons.

In this special issue, we invite papers dealing with all aspects related to serpentinites, in an effort to further highlight their significance in science, their industrial applications, and the related health hazards, as well as their potential use for CO2 sequestration in order to counter the observed global climate change.

Dr. Basilios Tsikouras
Prof. Dr. Shoji Arai
Dr. Ioannis Rigopoulos
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Minerals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • chrysotile, lizardite and antigorite
  • ophiolites
  • peridotites
  • arcs and sub-arc lithospheric mantle
  • subduction zones
  • ocean floor
  • oceanic lithosphere
  • asbestos
  • abiotic methane and hydrocarbons
  • hard and anti-skid aggregates
  • CO2 sequestration
  • mineral carbonation

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Thermal Annealing and Phase Transformation of Serpentine-Like Garnierite
Minerals 2021, 11(2), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11020188 - 11 Feb 2021
Viewed by 611
Abstract
This study is focused on the vibrational and microstructural aspects of the thermally induced transformation of serpentine-like garnierite into quartz, forsterite, and enstatite occurring at about 620 °C. Powder specimens of garnierite were annealed in static air between room temperature and 1000 °C. [...] Read more.
This study is focused on the vibrational and microstructural aspects of the thermally induced transformation of serpentine-like garnierite into quartz, forsterite, and enstatite occurring at about 620 °C. Powder specimens of garnierite were annealed in static air between room temperature and 1000 °C. The kinetic of the transformation was investigated by means of thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, and the final product was extensively characterized via micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Our study shows that serpentine-like garnierite consists of a mixture of different mineral species. Furthermore, these garnierites and their composition can provide details based on the mineralogy and the crystalline phases resulting from the thermal treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Insights into Serpentinites)
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Article
Magnesium Leachability of Mg-Silicate Peridotites: The Effect on Magnesite Yield of a Mineral Carbonation Process
Minerals 2020, 10(12), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10121091 - 05 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 751
Abstract
The aim of this study was to increase feedstock availability for mineral carbonation. Acid dissolution and carbonic acid dissolution approaches were used to achieve higher Mg extractions from peridotites. Acid dissolution studies of raw dunite, heat-activated dunite, heat-transformed dunite, and twin sister dunite [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to increase feedstock availability for mineral carbonation. Acid dissolution and carbonic acid dissolution approaches were used to achieve higher Mg extractions from peridotites. Acid dissolution studies of raw dunite, heat-activated dunite, heat-transformed dunite, and twin sister dunite have not been reported in the literature. Heat-activated dunite is more reactive as compared to heat-transformed dunite, raw dunite, and twin sister dunite. The fraction of magnesium extracted from heat-activated dunite was 57% as compared to 18% from heat-transformed dunite, 14% from raw dunite, and 11% from twin sister dunite. Similarly, silicon and iron extractions were higher for heat-activated dunite compared to that of heat-transformed dunite, raw dunite, and twin sister dunite. Materials rich in forsterite (twin sister dunite and heat-transformed dunite) showed preferential Mg release and exhibited incongruent dissolution similar to that of forsterite. Heat-activated dunite (amorphous magnesium silicate rich) on the other hand behaved differently and showed congruent dissolution. Olivine did not dissolve under carbonic acid dissolution (with concurrent grinding) and acidic conditions. Under carbonic acid dissolution with concurrent grinding conditions, olivine was partially converted into nanometer sized particles (d10 = 0.08 µm) but still provided 16% Mg extraction during 4 h of dissolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Insights into Serpentinites)
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Article
Post-Serpentinization Formation of Theophrastite-Zaratite by Heazlewoodite Desulfurization: An Implication for Shallow Behavior of Sulfur in a Subduction Complex
Minerals 2020, 10(9), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10090806 - 13 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1467
Abstract
Rare nickel hydroxide-hydroxyl carbonate, theophrastite (Ni(OH)2)-zaratite (Ni3(CO3)(OH)4·4H2O) aggregates were found from a partially serpentinized dunite from Fujiwara, the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt of high-pressure intermediate type, Japan. The dunite was regionally metamorphosed within the [...] Read more.
Rare nickel hydroxide-hydroxyl carbonate, theophrastite (Ni(OH)2)-zaratite (Ni3(CO3)(OH)4·4H2O) aggregates were found from a partially serpentinized dunite from Fujiwara, the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt of high-pressure intermediate type, Japan. The dunite was regionally metamorphosed within the Sanbagawa subduction complex of Cretaceous age. The theophrastite-zaratite aggregate from Fujiwara most typically occurs in association with nickel sulfides, which form a composite grain with awaruite and magnetite within an antigorite-rich part of the rock. The theophraste-zaratite formed possibly together with millerite (NiS) from heazlewoodite (Ni3S2). This represents a partial desulfurization of heazlewoodite, which contains or interlocks with laths of antigorite, suggesting their cogenesis. The desulfurization occurred at an early stage of, or during, exhumation of the subduction complex toward the surface, where sulfur was oxidized and removed as sulfate ions. Serpentinization of olivine has not been associated with the formation of theophrastite-zaratite, and an oxidized condition has been kept at this post-serpentinization stage. The sulfate ions liberated in part precipitated anhydrite where calcium was available in the surrounding rocks. This shows one of the shallow migration pathways of sulfur in the subduction zone, especially to the forearc area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Insights into Serpentinites)
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Article
Formation of Natural Silicate Hydrates by the Interaction of Alkaline Seepage and Sediments Derived from Serpentinized Ultramafic Rocks at Narra, Palawan, the Philippines
Minerals 2020, 10(8), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080719 - 17 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1219
Abstract
In radioactive waste disposal facilities, low-permeability engineered barrier materials are important for inhibiting radionuclide migration. However, dissolution–precipitation reactions under alkaline conditions change the permeability of engineered barriers. To understand long-term dissolution–precipitation reactions under alkaline conditions in chemically complex systems, trenches and drill holes [...] Read more.
In radioactive waste disposal facilities, low-permeability engineered barrier materials are important for inhibiting radionuclide migration. However, dissolution–precipitation reactions under alkaline conditions change the permeability of engineered barriers. To understand long-term dissolution–precipitation reactions under alkaline conditions in chemically complex systems, trenches and drill holes were excavated at Narra in Palawan, where alkaline fluids (pH > 11) have been naturally produced, seeping into clastic sediments derived from serpentinized ultramafic rocks and gabbro of Palawan ophiolite. Interaction between the alkaline seepage and clastic sediments, which have been deposited since 15,000 radiocarbon years before present (14C yr BP), led to dissolution of minerals and the precipitation of Si-bearing phases which were divided into two main categories: Fe-Mg-Si infillings and Ca-Si infillings. The former category was composed of iron-magnesium-silicate-hydrate (F-M-S-H) and a nontronite-like mineral and was widely recognized in the clastic sediments. The nontronite-like mineral likely formed by interaction between silicates and alkaline seepage mixed with infiltrated seawater, whereas F-M-S-H formed by the reaction of silicates with alkaline seepage in the absence of seawater infiltration. Ca-Si infillings included 14 Å tobermorite and were precipitated from alkaline seepage combined with the Ca and Si supplied by the dissolution of calcite and silicates in the clastic sediments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Insights into Serpentinites)
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