Special Issue "Metallurgical Slags"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Jakub Kierczak

Instytut Nauk Geologicznych, Uniwersytet Wrocławski, 50-205, Wrocław, Poland
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Interests: environmental mineralogy and geochemistry; metallurgical slags; mobility of metallic elements of natural and anthropogenic origin; ultramafic soils
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Vojtěch Ettler

Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles University, 128 43 Prague 2, Czech
Website | E-Mail
Interests: environmental mineralogy and geochemistry; metallurgical slags; leaching properties; thermodynamic modelling; polluted soils; metal isotope tracers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Exploitation and further processing of mineral resources is of great importance for modern society. However, these processes are accompanied by the production of a variety of by-products with metallurgical slag being one of the most important. Metallurgical slag is formed during the smelting of metallic ores and can be considered as an equivalent to igneous rocks because it is composed of synthetic analogues of silicates, oxides and sulfides, usually occurring in rocks. Multidisciplinary studies of metallurgical slags are mostly focused on: (1) reuse of these materials (for construction purposes or element recovery), (2) potential environmental impact of these wastes, (3) exploration how metallurgy evolved through human history. The purpose of this Special Issue is to collect research papers presenting the current state of knowledge on metallurgical slags. Contributions presenting different approaches to slag studies, including: mineralogical, geochemical, archaeometric and material science are warmly welcomed.

Dr. Jakub Kierczak
Prof. Dr. Vojtěch Ettler
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Minerals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Metallurgy
  • Slag Phase Composition
  • Archaeometry
  • Metallic Elements Mobility
  • Slag Reuse
  • Metal Recovery

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Understanding Heterogeneity of a Slag-Derived Weathered Material: The Role of Automated SEM-EDS Analyses
Minerals 2018, 8(11), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8110513
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 November 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
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Abstract
Slag heaps over years may evolve into complexly weathered zones, which are a challenging material for analyses as they contain phases from numerous sources and at different stages of weathering. However, the weathered zones are important parts of slag heaps, because they contain [...] Read more.
Slag heaps over years may evolve into complexly weathered zones, which are a challenging material for analyses as they contain phases from numerous sources and at different stages of weathering. However, the weathered zones are important parts of slag heaps, because they contain both primary and secondary phases enriched in metal(oid)s that may become soluble under specific conditions. The weathering reactions related to metal release or precipitation may be recorded in a heavy mineral fraction as the fraction contains predominately minerals with elevated toxic elements concentrations. Therefore, an automated SEM analysis on a polished section of included heavy mineral particles was applied in this paper for a rapid recognition of phases in a complex setting and their classification into detrital, primary and secondary phases. The approach was applied to a slag heap in Świętochłowice (Upper Silesia, Poland) and it consisted of analyzing magnetic and non-magnetic heavy mineral fractions from three distinct horizons noted A, B and C. Materials had been previously interpreted as being sourced from the heap itself (lowermost horizon C) and from artificially added materials used later for superficial site remediation (upper horizons A and B). Instead, automated SEM analysis demonstrated that horizon C is derived from the slag heap weathering, horizon B is derived predominately from the artificially added materials, whereas horizon A is a mixture of the B and C horizons. Additionally, when slag particles in horizons A and C are compared, the lowermost horizon C contains more slag-derived secondary phases, whereas horizon A contains more primary slag phases. Therefore, horizon A remains the most prone to releasing toxic elements because, considering its position as the uppermost horizon, it can be submitted to climatic solicitation (fast water circulation). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallurgical Slags)
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Open AccessArticle Stability of Chromium in Stainless Steel Slag during Cooling
Minerals 2018, 8(10), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8100445
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3880 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The chromium elution behavior of stainless steel (SS) slag depends highly on the chromium distribution, and the molten modification process proved to effectively improve the chromium enrichment in stable phases. However, the phase transformation and variation of chromium stability during the subsequent cooling [...] Read more.
The chromium elution behavior of stainless steel (SS) slag depends highly on the chromium distribution, and the molten modification process proved to effectively improve the chromium enrichment in stable phases. However, the phase transformation and variation of chromium stability during the subsequent cooling process is still poorly understood. In this work, the phase composition and chromium distribution of SS slag from different quenching temperatures were experimentally studied, and the stability of chromium-bearing phases was evaluated using standard leaching tests. The results indicated that dicalcium silicate and spinel phases had formed in the molten slag at 1600 °C, while the dicalcium silicate disappeared and the phases of merwinite and melilite precipitated when the temperature decreased from 1600 to 1300 °C (at a rate of 5 °C/min). During this cooling process, the chromium migrated from other phases into the spinel, significantly suppressing the chromium elution. The leaching results also demonstrated that the potential chromium-bearing phases of glass, dicalcium silicate and merwinite are unstable and are presumably the main source of chromium release. The treated SS slag meets the requirements for the utilization of chromium-bearing slag in the cement and brick industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallurgical Slags)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Lime on Stability of Chromium in Stainless Steel Slag
Minerals 2018, 8(10), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8100424
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 19 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 26 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The stabilization of chromium is of great importance to the use of stainless steel slag (SSS), and the influence of lime on the stability of chromium is currently unclear. In this work, the variation of phase transformation and chromium distribution with slag basicity [...] Read more.
The stabilization of chromium is of great importance to the use of stainless steel slag (SSS), and the influence of lime on the stability of chromium is currently unclear. In this work, the variation of phase transformation and chromium distribution with slag basicity (CaO/SiO2) were investigated experimentally, and the leaching ability of chromium was evaluated. Results showed that chromium-bearing phases were glass, dicalcium silicate (C2S), spinel, and periclase, while the degree of enrichment of chromium in these phases was found to be closely related to the basicity. The optimal basicity obtained in this research was 1.5, with the chromium mainly present in the stable spinel and exhibiting the lowest leaching ability. The product layer structure of unmelted lime was studied as well, showing a periclase layer and a Ca2SiO4 layer. Some CaCr2O4 had formed in the periclase layer, which is potentially hazardous for the environment and living organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallurgical Slags)
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