Special Issue "Silicon Photonics Bloom"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "A:Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ozdal Boyraz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Interests: silicon photonics; integrated optics; microwave photonics; optical communication systems
Dr. Qiancheng Zhao
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA.
Interests: silicon photonics; silicon nitride; planar waveguides; bolometers; leaky wave antennas; plasmonics; optomechanics; fabrication

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The open access journal Micromachines invites manuscript submissions for the Special Issue “Silicon Photonics Bloom”. The past two decades have witnessed a tremendous growth of silicon photonics. Lab-scale research on simple passive component designs is now being expanded by on-chip hybrid systems architectures. With the recent injection of government and private funding, we are living the 1980s of the electronic industry, when the first merchant foundries were established. Soon, we will see more and more merchant foundries proposing well-established electronic design tools, product development kits, and mature component libraries. The open access journal Micromachines invites the submission of manuscripts in the developing area of silicon photonics. The goal of this Special Issue is to highlight the recent developments in this cutting-edge technology. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to, the following sub-categories:

  • Optoelectronic integration
  • New silicon and silicon nitride active and passive component designs
  • Novel light sources on silicon platforms
  • High-speed detectors for silicon photonics
  • High-Q resonators
  • New fabrication techniques
  • Hybrid integration of silicon with other semiconductors or solid state crystals
  • Silicon-based high-speed modulators
  • Silicon-based short-distance optical communication systems and architectures
  • Beam-steering and beam-shaping architectures
  • Silicon-based RF compared to fiber or microwave photonics
  • Silicon-based biophotonics
  • Novel integrated sensors
  • Silicon photonics for space applications
  • Niche applications of silicon photonics

Dr. Ozdal Boyraz
Dr. Qiancheng Zhao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Silicon photonics
  • Photonic-integrated circuits
  • Silicon photodetectors
  • Planar phased-array antennas
  • Silicon beam-steering devices
  • Photonic optomechanics
  • Hybrid photonic-integrated circuits
  • Opto-electronic integration

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Nitrogen Doping on the Photoluminescence of Amorphous Silicon Oxycarbide Films
Micromachines 2019, 10(10), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10100649 - 27 Sep 2019
Abstract
The effect of nitrogen doping on the photoluminescence (PL) of amorphous SiCxOy films was investigated. An increase in the content of nitrogen in the films from 1.07% to 25.6% resulted in red, orange-yellow, white, and blue switching PL. Luminescence decay [...] Read more.
The effect of nitrogen doping on the photoluminescence (PL) of amorphous SiCxOy films was investigated. An increase in the content of nitrogen in the films from 1.07% to 25.6% resulted in red, orange-yellow, white, and blue switching PL. Luminescence decay measurements showed an ultrafast decay dynamic with a lifetime of ~1 ns for all the nitrogen-doped SiCxOy films. Nitrogen doping could also widen the bandgap of SiCxOy films. The microstructure and the elemental compositions of the films were studied by obtaining their Raman spectra and their X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The PL characteristics combined with an analysis of the chemical bonds configurations present in the films suggested that the switching PL was attributed to the change in defect luminescent centers resulting from the chemical bond reconstruction as a function of nitrogen doping. Nitrogen doping provides an alternative route for designing and fabricating tunable and efficient SiCxOy-based luminescent films for the development of Si-based optoelectronic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonics Bloom)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Programmable SCOW Mesh Silicon Photonic Processor for Linear Unitary Operator
Micromachines 2019, 10(10), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10100646 - 26 Sep 2019
Abstract
Universal unitary multiport interferometers (UMIs) can perform any arbitrary unitary transformation to a vector of input optical modes, which are essential for a wide range of applications. Most UMIs are realized by fixed photonic circuits with a triangular or a rectangular architecture. Here, [...] Read more.
Universal unitary multiport interferometers (UMIs) can perform any arbitrary unitary transformation to a vector of input optical modes, which are essential for a wide range of applications. Most UMIs are realized by fixed photonic circuits with a triangular or a rectangular architecture. Here, we present the implementation of an N × N rectangular UMI with a programmable photonic processor based on two-dimensional meshes of self-coupled optical waveguide (SCOW) resonant structures. Our architecture shows a high tolerance to the unbalanced loss upon interference. This work enriches the functionality of the SCOW mesh photonic processors, which are promising for field-programmable photonic arrays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonics Bloom)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Active On-Chip Dispersion Control Using a Tunable Silicon Bragg Grating
Micromachines 2019, 10(9), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10090569 - 28 Aug 2019
Abstract
Actively controllable dispersion in on-chip photonic devices is challenging to implement compared with free space optical components where mechanical degrees of freedom can be employed. Here, we present a method by which continuously tunable group delay control is achieved by modulating the refractive [...] Read more.
Actively controllable dispersion in on-chip photonic devices is challenging to implement compared with free space optical components where mechanical degrees of freedom can be employed. Here, we present a method by which continuously tunable group delay control is achieved by modulating the refractive index profile of a silicon Bragg grating using thermo-optic effects. A simple thermal heater element is used to create tunable thermal gradients along the grating length, inducing chirped group delay profiles. Both effective blue and red chirp are realised using a single on-chip device over nanometre scale bandwidths. Group delay slopes are continuously tunable over a few ps/nm range from red to blue chirp, compatible with on-chip dispersion compensation for telecommunications picosecond pulse systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonics Bloom)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Design of Ultra-Compact Optical Memristive Switches with GST as the Active Material
Micromachines 2019, 10(7), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10070453 - 05 Jul 2019
Abstract
In the following study, we propose optical memristive switches consisting of a silicon waveguide integrated with phase-change material Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST). Thanks to its high refractive index contrast between the crystalline and amorphous states, a miniature-size GST material can [...] Read more.
In the following study, we propose optical memristive switches consisting of a silicon waveguide integrated with phase-change material Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST). Thanks to its high refractive index contrast between the crystalline and amorphous states, a miniature-size GST material can offer a high switching extinction ratio. We optimize the device design by using finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) simulations. A device with a length of 4.7 μm including silicon waveguide tapers exhibits a high extinction ratio of 33.1 dB and a low insertion loss of 0.48 dB around the 1550 nm wavelength. The operation bandwidth of the device is around 60 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonics Bloom)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Translational MEMS Platform for Planar Optical Switching Fabrics
Micromachines 2019, 10(7), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10070435 - 30 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
While 3-D microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) allow switching between a large number of ports in optical telecommunication networks, the development of such systems often suffers from design, fabrication and packaging constraints due to the complex structures, the wafer bonding processes involved, and the tight [...] Read more.
While 3-D microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) allow switching between a large number of ports in optical telecommunication networks, the development of such systems often suffers from design, fabrication and packaging constraints due to the complex structures, the wafer bonding processes involved, and the tight alignment tolerances between different components. In this work, we present a 2-D translational MEMS platform capable of highly efficient planar optical switching through integration with silicon nitride (SiN) based optical waveguides. The discrete lateral displacement provided by simple parallel plate actuators on opposite sides of the central platform enables switching between different input and output waveguides. The proposed structure can displace the central platform by 3.37 µm in two directions at an actuation voltage of 65 V. Additionally, the parallel plate actuator designed for closing completely the 4.26 µm air gap between the fixed and moving waveguides operates at just 50 V. Eigenmode expansion analysis shows over 99% butt-coupling efficiency the between the SiN waveguides when the gap is closed. Also, 2.5 finite-difference time-domain analysis demonstrates zero cross talk between two parallel SiN waveguides across the length of the platform for a 3.5 µm separation between adjacent waveguides enabling multiple waveguide configuration onto the platform. Different MEMS designs were simulated using static structural analysis in ANSYS. These designs were fabricated with a custom process by AEPONYX Inc. (Montreal, QC, Canada) and through the PiezoMUMPs process of MEMSCAP (Durham, NC, USA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonics Bloom)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
An Integrated Germanium-Based THz Impulse Radiator with an Optical Waveguide Coupled Photoconductive Switch in Silicon
Micromachines 2019, 10(6), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10060367 - 31 May 2019
Abstract
This paper presents an integrated germanium (Ge)-based THz impulse radiator with an optical waveguide coupled photoconductive switch in a low-cost silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process. This process provides a Ge thin film, which is used as photoconductive material. To generate short THz impulses, N++ implant [...] Read more.
This paper presents an integrated germanium (Ge)-based THz impulse radiator with an optical waveguide coupled photoconductive switch in a low-cost silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process. This process provides a Ge thin film, which is used as photoconductive material. To generate short THz impulses, N++ implant is added to the Ge thin film to reduce its photo-carrier lifetime to sub-picosecond for faster transient response. A bow-tie antenna is designed and connected to the photoconductive switch for radiation. To improve radiation efficiency, a silicon lens is attached to the substrate-side of the chip. This design features an optical-waveguide-enabled “horizontal” coupling mechanism between the optical excitation signal and the photoconductive switch. The THz emitter prototype works with 1550 nm femtosecond lasers. The radiated THz impulses achieve a full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of 1.14 ps and a bandwidth of 1.5 THz. The average radiated power is 0.337 μ W. Compared with conventional THz photoconductive antennas (PCAs), this design exhibits several advantages: First, it uses silicon-based technology, which reduces the fabrication cost; second, the excitation wavelength is 1550 nm, at which various low-cost laser sources operate; and third, in this design, the monolithic excitation mechanism between the excitation laser and the photoconductive switch enables on-chip programmable control of excitation signals for THz beam-steering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonics Bloom)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Geometrical Representation of a Polarisation Management Component on a SOI Platform
Micromachines 2019, 10(6), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10060364 - 30 May 2019
Abstract
Grating couplers, widely used in Silicon Photonics (SiPho) for fibre-chip coupling are polarisation sensitive components, consequently any polarisation fluctuation from the fibre optical link results in spurious intensity swings. A polarisation management componentis analytically considered, coupled with a geometrical representation based on phasors [...] Read more.
Grating couplers, widely used in Silicon Photonics (SiPho) for fibre-chip coupling are polarisation sensitive components, consequently any polarisation fluctuation from the fibre optical link results in spurious intensity swings. A polarisation management componentis analytically considered, coupled with a geometrical representation based on phasors and Poincaré sphere, generalising and simplifying the treatment and understanding of its functionalities. A specific implementation in SOI is shown both as polarisation compensator and polarisation controller, focusing on the operative principle. Finally, it is demonstrated experimentally that this component can be used as an integrated polarimeter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonics Bloom)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
100 Gb/s Silicon Photonic WDM Transmitter with Misalignment-Tolerant Surface-Normal Optical Interfaces
Micromachines 2019, 10(5), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10050336 - 22 May 2019
Abstract
A 4 × 25 Gb/s ultrawide misalignment tolerance wavelength-division-multiplex (WDM) transmitter based on novel bidirectional vertical grating coupler has been demonstrated on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. Simulations indicate the bidirectional grating coupler (BGC) is widely misalignment tolerant, with an excess coupling [...] Read more.
A 4 × 25 Gb/s ultrawide misalignment tolerance wavelength-division-multiplex (WDM) transmitter based on novel bidirectional vertical grating coupler has been demonstrated on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. Simulations indicate the bidirectional grating coupler (BGC) is widely misalignment tolerant, with an excess coupling loss of only 0.55 dB within ±3 μm fiber misalignment range. Measurement shows the excess coupling loss of the BGC is only 0.7 dB within a ±2 μm fiber misalignment range. The bidirectional grating structure not only functions as an optical coupler, but also acts as a beam splitter. By using the bidirectional grating coupler, the silicon optical modulator shows low insertion loss and large misalignment tolerance. The eye diagrams of the modulator at 25 Gb/s don’t show any obvious deterioration within the waveguide-direction fiber misalignment ranger of ±2 μm, and still open clearly when the misalignment offset is as large as ±4 μm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonics Bloom)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Silicon Quantum Dot Light Emitting Diode at 620 nm
Micromachines 2019, 10(5), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10050318 - 11 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Here we report a quantum dot light emitting diode (QLED), in which a layer of colloidal silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) works as the optically active component, exhibiting a strong electroluminescence (EL) spectrum peaking at 620 nm. We could not see any fluctuation of [...] Read more.
Here we report a quantum dot light emitting diode (QLED), in which a layer of colloidal silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) works as the optically active component, exhibiting a strong electroluminescence (EL) spectrum peaking at 620 nm. We could not see any fluctuation of the EL spectral peak, even in air, when the operation voltage varied in the range from 4 to 5 V because of the possible advantage of the inverted device structure. The pale-orange EL spectrum was as narrow as 95 nm. Interestingly, the EL spectrum was narrower than the corresponding photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. The EL emission was strong enough to be seen by the naked eye. The currently obtained brightness (∼4200 cd/m2), the 0.033% external quantum efficiency (EQE), and a turn-on voltage as low as 2.8 V show a sufficiently high performance when compared to other orange-light-emitting Si-QLEDs in the literature. We also observed a parasitic emission from the neighboring compositional layer (i.e., the zinc oxide layer), and its intensity increased with the driving voltage of the device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonics Bloom)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview
A Review: Preparation, Performance, and Applications of Silicon Oxynitride Film
Micromachines 2019, 10(8), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10080552 - 20 Aug 2019
Abstract
Silicon oxynitride (SiNxOy) is a highly promising functional material for its luminescence performance and tunable refractive index, which has wide applications in optical devices, non-volatile memory, barrier layer, and scratch-resistant coatings. This review presents recent developments, and discusses the [...] Read more.
Silicon oxynitride (SiNxOy) is a highly promising functional material for its luminescence performance and tunable refractive index, which has wide applications in optical devices, non-volatile memory, barrier layer, and scratch-resistant coatings. This review presents recent developments, and discusses the preparation methods, performance, and applications of SiNxOy film. In particular, the preparation of SiNxOy film by chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition, and oxynitridation is elaborated in details. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonics Bloom)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Towards On-Chip Self-Referenced Frequency-Comb Sources Based on Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers
Micromachines 2019, 10(6), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10060391 - 11 Jun 2019
Abstract
Miniaturization of frequency-comb sources could open a host of potential applications in spectroscopy, biomedical monitoring, astronomy, microwave signal generation, and distribution of precise time or frequency across networks. This review article places emphasis on an architecture with a semiconductor mode-locked laser at the [...] Read more.
Miniaturization of frequency-comb sources could open a host of potential applications in spectroscopy, biomedical monitoring, astronomy, microwave signal generation, and distribution of precise time or frequency across networks. This review article places emphasis on an architecture with a semiconductor mode-locked laser at the heart of the system and subsequent supercontinuum generation and carrier-envelope offset detection and stabilization in nonlinear integrated optics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonics Bloom)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessLetter
Silicon Optical Modulator Using a Low-Loss Phase Shifter Based on a Multimode Interference Waveguide
Micromachines 2019, 10(7), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10070482 - 18 Jul 2019
Abstract
We have developed a novel phase modulator, based on fin-type electrodes placed at self-imaging positions of a silicon multimode interference (MMI) waveguide, which allows reduced scattering losses and relaxes the fabrication tolerance. The measured propagation losses and spectral bandwidth are 0.7 dB and [...] Read more.
We have developed a novel phase modulator, based on fin-type electrodes placed at self-imaging positions of a silicon multimode interference (MMI) waveguide, which allows reduced scattering losses and relaxes the fabrication tolerance. The measured propagation losses and spectral bandwidth are 0.7 dB and 33 nm, respectively, on a 987 μm-long phase shifter. Owing to the self-imaging effect in the MMI waveguide, the wave-front expansion to the electrode was counteracted, and therefore, the scattering loss caused by electrode fins was successfully mitigated. As a proof-of-concept for the MMI-based phase modulator applications, we performed optical modulation based on Mach–Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The π shift current of the modulator was 1.5 mA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonics Bloom)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop