Special Issue "Nanostructure Based Sensors for Gas Sensing: from Devices to Systems"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "C:Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Nicola Donato
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, Universita degli Studi di Messina, Messina, Italy
Tel. +39-090-397-7502/7389
Interests: characterization and modeling of gas sensors; design of custom electronics for chemical and electrochemical sensing; automotive gas sensors; biomedical sensors; development of sensor based measurement systems
Prof. Sabrina Grassini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Tel. +39-011-0904702/+39-331-6684881
Interests: plasma chemistry; thin film; smart sensors; corrosion and protection of metallic materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of solid state gas sensors based on microtransducers and nanostructured sensing materials is the key point in the design of portable measurement systems able to reach sensing and identification performance comparable with analytical ones. In such a context several efforts must be spent of course in the development of the sensing material, but also in the choice of the transducer mechanism and its structure, in the electrical characterization of the performance and in the design of suitable measurement setups.

This call for papers invites researchers worldwide to report about their novel results on the most recent advances and overview in design and measurements for applications in gas sensors, along with their relevant features and technological aspects. Original research papers are welcome (but not limited) on all aspects that focus on the most recent advances in: (i) basic principles and modeling of gas and VOCs sensors; (ii) new gas sensor principles and technologies; (iii) Characterization and measurements methodologies; (iv) transduction and sampling systems; (vi) package optimization; (vi) gas sensor based systems and applications.

Prof. Nicola Donato
Prof. Sabrina Grassini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • gas sensors
  • VOCs sensors
  • micro- and nano-transducers
  • gas sensing modeling
  • nano-structured sensors
  • electronic sensing interfaces
  • measurement systems
  • characterization methodologies

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Editorial for the Special Issue on Nanostructure Based Sensors for Gas Sensing: from Devices to Systems
Micromachines 2019, 10(9), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10090591 - 09 Sep 2019
Abstract
The development of solid state gas sensors based on microtransducers and nanostructured
sensing materials is the key point in the design of new portable measurement systems with sensing and identification performances comparable with those of most sophisticated analytical techniques. In such a context, [...] Read more.
The development of solid state gas sensors based on microtransducers and nanostructured
sensing materials is the key point in the design of new portable measurement systems with sensing and identification performances comparable with those of most sophisticated analytical techniques. In such a context, a lot of effort must be spent of course in the development of the sensing material, but also in the choice of the transducer mechanism and structure, in the electrical characterization of the sensor prototypes, as well as in the design of suitable measurement setups. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructure Based Sensors for Gas Sensing: from Devices to Systems)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle
Effects of UV Irradiation on the Sensing Properties of In2O3 for CO Detection at Low Temperature
Micromachines 2019, 10(5), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10050338 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, UV irradiation was used to improve the response of indium oxide (In2O3) used as a CO sensing material for a resistive sensor operating in a low temperature range, from 25 °C to 150 °C. Different experimental [...] Read more.
In this study, UV irradiation was used to improve the response of indium oxide (In2O3) used as a CO sensing material for a resistive sensor operating in a low temperature range, from 25 °C to 150 °C. Different experimental conditions have been compared, varying UV irradiation mode and sensor operating temperature. Results demonstrated that operating the sensor under continuous UV radiation did not improve the response to target gas. The most advantageous condition was obtained when the UV LED irradiated the sensor in regeneration and was turned off during CO detection. In this operating mode, the semiconductor layer showed an apparent “p-type” behavior due to the UV irradiation. Overall, the effect was an improvement of the indium oxide response at 100 °C toward low CO concentrations (from 1 to 10 ppm) that showed higher results than in the dark, which is promising to extend the detection of CO with an In2O3-based sensor in the sub-ppm range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructure Based Sensors for Gas Sensing: from Devices to Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Miniaturized Amperometric Hydrogen Sulfide Sensor Applicable for Bad Breath Monitoring
Micromachines 2018, 9(12), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9120612 - 22 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Bad breath or halitosis affects a majority of the population from time to time, causing personal discomfort and social embarrassment. Here, we report on a miniaturized, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based, amperometric hydrogen sulfide (H2S) sensor that potentially allows bad breath quantification through [...] Read more.
Bad breath or halitosis affects a majority of the population from time to time, causing personal discomfort and social embarrassment. Here, we report on a miniaturized, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based, amperometric hydrogen sulfide (H2S) sensor that potentially allows bad breath quantification through a small handheld device. The sensor is designed to detect H2S gas in the order of parts-per-billion (ppb) and has a measured sensitivity of 0.65 nA/ppb with a response time of 21 s. The sensor was found to be selective to NO and NH3 gases, which are normally present in the oral breath of adults. The ppb-level detection capability of the integrated sensor, combined with its relatively fast response and high sensitivity to H2S, makes the sensor potentially applicable for oral breath monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructure Based Sensors for Gas Sensing: from Devices to Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Set of Platforms with Combinatorial and High-Throughput Technique for Gas Sensing, from Material to Device and to System
Micromachines 2018, 9(11), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9110606 - 19 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
In a new E-nose development, the sensor array needs to be optimized to have enough sensitivity and selectivity for gas/odor classification in the application. The development process includes the preparation of gas sensitive materials, gas sensor fabrication, array optimization, sensor array package and [...] Read more.
In a new E-nose development, the sensor array needs to be optimized to have enough sensitivity and selectivity for gas/odor classification in the application. The development process includes the preparation of gas sensitive materials, gas sensor fabrication, array optimization, sensor array package and E-nose system integration, which would take a long time to complete. A set of platforms including a gas sensing film parallel synthesis platform, high-throughput gas sensing unmanned testing platform and a handheld wireless E-nose system were presented in this paper to improve the efficiency of a new E-nose development. Inkjet printing was used to parallel synthesize sensor libraries (400 sensors can be prepared each time). For gas sensor selection and array optimization, a high-throughput unmanned testing platform was designed and fabricated for gas sensing measurements of more than 1000 materials synchronously. The structures of a handheld wireless E-nose system with low power were presented in detail. Using the proposed hardware platforms, a new E-nose development might only take one week. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructure Based Sensors for Gas Sensing: from Devices to Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication and Packaging of CMUT Using Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic
Micromachines 2018, 9(11), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9110553 - 27 Oct 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper presents fabrication and packaging of a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) using anodically bondable low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC). Anodic bonding of LTCC with Au vias-silicon on insulator (SOI) has been used to fabricate CMUTs with different membrane radii, 24 µm, [...] Read more.
This paper presents fabrication and packaging of a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) using anodically bondable low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC). Anodic bonding of LTCC with Au vias-silicon on insulator (SOI) has been used to fabricate CMUTs with different membrane radii, 24 µm, 25 µm, 36 µm, 40 µm and 60 µm. Bottom electrodes were directly patterned on remained vias after wet etching of LTCC vias. CMUT cavities and Au bumps were micromachined on the Si part of the SOI wafer. This high conductive Si was also used as top electrode. Electrical connections between the top and bottom of the CMUT were achieved by Au-Au bonding of wet etched LTCC vias and bumps during anodic bonding. Three key parameters, infrared images, complex admittance plots, and static membrane displacement, were used to evaluate bonding success. CMUTs with a membrane thickness of 2.6 µm were fabricated for experimental analyses. A novel CMUT-IC packaging process has been described following the fabrication process. This process enables indirect packaging of the CMUT and integrated circuit (IC) using a lateral side via of LTCC. Lateral side vias were obtained by micromachining of fabricated CMUTs and used to drive CMUTs elements. Connection electrodes are patterned on LTCC side via and a catheter was assembled at the backside of the CMUT. The IC was mounted on the bonding pad on the catheter by a flip-chip bonding process. Bonding performance was evaluated by measurement of bond resistance between pads on the IC and catheter. This study demonstrates that the LTCC and LTCC side vias scheme can be a potential approach for high density CMUT array fabrication and indirect integration of CMUT-IC for miniature size packaging, which eliminates problems related with direct integration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructure Based Sensors for Gas Sensing: from Devices to Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Mini-System Integrated with Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Sensor and Micro-Packed Gas Chromatographic Column
Micromachines 2018, 9(8), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9080408 - 17 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this work, a mini monitoring system integrated with a microfabricated metal oxide array sensor and a micro packed gas chromatographic (GC) column was developed for monitoring environmental gases. The microfabricated packed GC column with a 1.6 m length was used to separate [...] Read more.
In this work, a mini monitoring system integrated with a microfabricated metal oxide array sensor and a micro packed gas chromatographic (GC) column was developed for monitoring environmental gases. The microfabricated packed GC column with a 1.6 m length was used to separate the environmental gas, and the metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) array sensor, fabricated with nano-sized SnO-SnO2 sensitive materials, was able to effectively detect each component separated by GC column. The results demonstrate that the monitoring system can detect environmental gas with high precision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructure Based Sensors for Gas Sensing: from Devices to Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
The Fabrication of [email protected] Core/Shell Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Solutions and Their Enhancements to a Gas Sensor
Micromachines 2018, 9(6), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9060278 - 01 Jun 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
A convenient and flexible route is presented to fabricate gold noble metal nanoparticles wrapped with a controllable ultrathin carbon layer ([email protected]) in one step based on laser ablation of the noble metal targets in toluene-ethanol mixed solutions. The obtained metal nanoparticles were <20 [...] Read more.
A convenient and flexible route is presented to fabricate gold noble metal nanoparticles wrapped with a controllable ultrathin carbon layer ([email protected]) in one step based on laser ablation of the noble metal targets in toluene-ethanol mixed solutions. The obtained metal nanoparticles were <20 nm in size after ablation, and the thickness of the wrapped ultrathin carbon layer was 2 nm in a typical reaction. The size of the inner noble metal nanoparticles could be controlled by adjusting the power of laser ablation, and the thickness of the ultrathin carbon layer can be controlled from 0.6 to 2 nm by laser ablation in different components of organic solution. Then the resultant [email protected] core/shell nanoparticles were modified on the surface of In2O3 films through a sol-gel technique, and the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas-sensing characteristics of the products were examined. Compared to pure and Au-modified In2O3, the [email protected] In2O3 materials exhibited a revertible and reproducible performance with good sensitivity and very low response times (few seconds) for H2S gas with a concentrations of 1 to 5 ppm at room temperature. Evidence proved that the ultrathin carbon layer played an important role in the improved H2S sensor performance. Other noble metals wrapped by the homogeneous carbon shell, such as [email protected], could also be prepared with this method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructure Based Sensors for Gas Sensing: from Devices to Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrospray Deposition of ZnO Thin Films and Its Application to Gas Sensors
Micromachines 2018, 9(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9020066 - 02 Feb 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Electrospray is a simple and cost-effective method to fabricate micro-structured thin films. This work investigates the electrospray process of ZnO patterns. The effects of experimental parameters on jet characteristics and electrosprayed patterns are studied. The length of stable jets increases with increasing applied [...] Read more.
Electrospray is a simple and cost-effective method to fabricate micro-structured thin films. This work investigates the electrospray process of ZnO patterns. The effects of experimental parameters on jet characteristics and electrosprayed patterns are studied. The length of stable jets increases with increasing applied voltage and flow rate, and decreases with increasing nozzle-to-substrate distance, while electrospray angles exhibit an opposite trend with respect to the stable jet lengths. The diameter of electrosprayed particles decreases with increasing applied voltage, and increases with flow rate. Furthermore, an alcohol gas sensor is presented. The ZnAc is calcined into ZnO, which reveals good repeatability and stability of response in target gas. The sensing response, defined as the resistance ratio of R0/Rg, where R0 and Rg are resistance of ZnO in air and alcohol gas, increases with the concentration of alcohol vapors and electrospray deposition time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructure Based Sensors for Gas Sensing: from Devices to Systems)
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