Special Issue "Microelectrode Arrays and Application to Medical Devices"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "B:Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 April 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Colin Dalton
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
Interests: biomedical micro devices; brain machine interfaces; electrokinetics; Lab-on-a-Chip; micro electrode arrays; microfluidics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Microelectrode arrays are increasingly used in a wide variety of situations in the medical device sector. For example, one major challenge in microfluidic devices is the manipulation of fluids and droplets effectively at such scales. Due to the laminar flow regime (i.e., low Reynolds number) in microfluidic devices, the mixing of species is also difficult, and unless an active mixing strategy is employed, passive diffusion is the only mechanism that causes the fluid to mix. For many applications, diffusion is considered too slow, and thus many active pumping and mixing strategies have been employed using electrokinetic methods, which utilize a variety of simple and complex microelectrode array structures.

Microelectrodes have also been implemented in in-vitro intracellular delivery platforms to conduct cell electroporation on chip, where a highly localized electric field on the scale of a single cell is generated to enhance the uptake of extracellular material. In addition, microelectrode arrays are utilized in different microfluidic biosensing modalities where a higher sensitivity, selectivity, and limit-of-detection are desired. Carbon nanotube microelectrode arrays are used for DNA detection, multi-electrode array chips are used for drug discovery, and there has been an explosion of research into brain–machine interfaces, fueled by microfabricated electrode arrays, both planar and three-dimensional.

The advantages associated with microelectrode arrays include small size, the ability to manufacture repeatedly and reliably tens to thousands of micro-electrodes on both rigid and flexible substrates, and their utility for both in vitro and in vivo applications. To realize their full potential, there is a need to develop and integrate microelectrode arrays to form useful medical device systems.

As the field of microelectrode array research is wide, and touches many application areas, it is often difficult to locate a single source of relevant information. This Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on the application of microelectrode arrays in the medical device sector. Particular interest will be paid to innovative application areas that can improve upon existing medical devices, such as for neuromodulation and real world lab-on-a-chip applications.

Dr. Colin Dalton
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Micro Electrode Array
  • Biomedical Micro Devices
  • Brain Machine Interfaces
  • Electrokinetics
  • Lab-on-a-Chip
  • Microfluidics
  • Neuromodulcation
  • Biosensors
  • Micropumps
  • Micromixing
  • Electrothermal
  • Electroosmosis
  • Dielectrophoresis

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Low-Power, Multimodal Laser Micromachining of Materials for Applications in sub-5 µm Shadow Masks and sub-10 µm Interdigitated Electrodes (IDEs) Fabrication
Micromachines 2020, 11(2), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11020178 - 08 Feb 2020
Abstract
Laser micromachining is a direct write microfabrication technology that has several advantages over traditional micro/nanofabrication techniques. In this paper, we present a comprehensive characterization of a QuikLaze 50ST2 multimodal laser micromachining tool by determining the ablation characteristics of six (6) different materials and [...] Read more.
Laser micromachining is a direct write microfabrication technology that has several advantages over traditional micro/nanofabrication techniques. In this paper, we present a comprehensive characterization of a QuikLaze 50ST2 multimodal laser micromachining tool by determining the ablation characteristics of six (6) different materials and demonstrating two applications. Both the thermodynamic theoretical and experimental ablation characteristics of stainless steel (SS) and aluminum are examined at 1064 nm, silicon and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) at 532 nm, and Kapton® and polyethylene terephthalate at 355 nm. We found that the experimental data aligned well with the theoretical analysis. Additionally, two applications of this multimodal laser micromachining technology are demonstrated: shadow masking down to approximately 1.5 µm feature sizes and interdigitated electrode (IDE) fabrication down to 7 µm electrode gap width. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microelectrode Arrays and Application to Medical Devices)
Open AccessArticle
A Low Contact Impedance Medical Flexible Electrode Based on a Pyramid Array Micro-Structure
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010057 - 01 Jan 2020
Abstract
Flexible electrodes are extensively used to detect signals in electrocardiography, electroencephalography, electro-ophthalmography, and electromyography, among others. These electrodes can also be used in wearable and implantable medical systems. The collected signals directly affect doctors’ diagnoses of patient etiology and are closely associated with [...] Read more.
Flexible electrodes are extensively used to detect signals in electrocardiography, electroencephalography, electro-ophthalmography, and electromyography, among others. These electrodes can also be used in wearable and implantable medical systems. The collected signals directly affect doctors’ diagnoses of patient etiology and are closely associated with patients’ life safety. Electrodes with low contact impedance can acquire good quality signals. Herein, we established a method of arraying pyramidal microstructures on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates to increase the contact area of electrodes, and a parylene transitional layer is coated between PDMS substrates and metal membranes to enhance the bonding force, finally reducing the impedance of flexible electrodes. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed methods were effective. The contact area of the fabricated electrode increased by 18.15% per unit area, and the contact impedance at 20 Hz to 1 kHz scanning frequency ranged from 23 to 8 kΩ, which was always smaller than that of a commercial electrode. Overall, these results indicated the excellent performance of the fabricated electrode given its low contact impedance and good biocompatibility. This study can also serve as a reference for further electrode research and application in wearable and implantable medical systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microelectrode Arrays and Application to Medical Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Bisphenol A Based on Self-Assembly
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010041 - 30 Dec 2019
Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor that may lead to reproductive disorder, heart disease, and diabetes. Infants and young children are likely to be vulnerable to the effects of BPA. At present, the detection methods of BPA are complicated to operate and [...] Read more.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor that may lead to reproductive disorder, heart disease, and diabetes. Infants and young children are likely to be vulnerable to the effects of BPA. At present, the detection methods of BPA are complicated to operate and require expensive instruments. Therefore, it is quite vital to develop a simple, rapid, and highly sensitive method to detect BPA in different samples. In this study, we have designed a rapid and highly sensitive biosensor based on an effective self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and alternating current (AC) electrokinetics capacitive sensing method, which successfully detected BPA at nanomolar levels with only one minute. The developed biosensor demonstrates a detection of BPA ranging from 0.028 μg/mL to 280 μg/mL with a limit of detection (LOD) down to 0.028 μg/mL in the samples. The developed biosensor exhibited great potential as a portable BPA biosensor, and further development of this biosensor may also be useful in the detection of other small biochemical molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microelectrode Arrays and Application to Medical Devices)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Advances in Liquid Metal-Enabled Flexible and Wearable Sensors
Micromachines 2020, 11(2), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11020200 - 15 Feb 2020
Abstract
Sensors are core elements to directly obtain information from surrounding objects for further detecting, judging and controlling purposes. With the rapid development of soft electronics, flexible sensors have made considerable progress, and can better fit the objects to detect and, thus respond to [...] Read more.
Sensors are core elements to directly obtain information from surrounding objects for further detecting, judging and controlling purposes. With the rapid development of soft electronics, flexible sensors have made considerable progress, and can better fit the objects to detect and, thus respond to changes more sensitively. Recently, as a newly emerging electronic ink, liquid metal is being increasingly investigated to realize various electronic elements, especially soft ones. Compared to conventional soft sensors, the introduction of liquid metal shows rather unique advantages. Due to excellent flexibility and conductivity, liquid-metal soft sensors present high enhancement in sensitivity and precision, thus producing many profound applications. So far, a series of flexible and wearable sensors based on liquid metal have been designed and tested. Their applications have also witnessed a growing exploration in biomedical areas, including health-monitoring, electronic skin, wearable devices and intelligent robots etc. This article presents a systematic review of the typical progress of liquid metal-enabled soft sensors, including material innovations, fabrication strategies, fundamental principles, representative application examples, and so on. The perspectives of liquid-metal soft sensors is finally interpreted to conclude the future challenges and opportunities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microelectrode Arrays and Application to Medical Devices)
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Open AccessReview
AC Electrothermal Effect in Microfluidics: A Review
Micromachines 2019, 10(11), 762; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10110762 - 11 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The electrothermal effect has been investigated extensively in microfluidics since the 1990s and has been suggested as a promising technique for fluid manipulations in lab-on-a-chip devices. The purpose of this article is to provide a timely overview of the previous works conducted in [...] Read more.
The electrothermal effect has been investigated extensively in microfluidics since the 1990s and has been suggested as a promising technique for fluid manipulations in lab-on-a-chip devices. The purpose of this article is to provide a timely overview of the previous works conducted in the AC electrothermal field to provide a comprehensive reference for researchers new to this field. First, electrokinetic phenomena are briefly introduced to show where the electrothermal effect stands, comparatively, versus other mechanisms. Then, recent advances in the electrothermal field are reviewed from different aspects and categorized to provide a better insight into the current state of the literature. Results and achievements of different studies are compared, and recommendations are made to help researchers weigh their options and decide on proper configuration and parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microelectrode Arrays and Application to Medical Devices)
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