Special Issue "Micro/Nano-system for Drug Delivery"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "B:Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 23 July 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Claudio Nastruzzi

Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, 44121, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: biomaterials; microfluidics; tissue engineering; nanotechnology; composite material
Guest Editor
Dr. Gabriele Pitingolo

Ecole Normale Supérieure-PSL Research University, Département de Chimie, Paris, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: biomaterials; microfluidics; organ on chip; nanotechnology; microfabrication

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last few decades, micro and nano-scaled devices and systems have gained great attention in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications, such as in the design of micro/nanoparticles, biosensors, and microdevices to perform high-throughput in vitro drug testing. For example, micelles, liposomes, dendrimers and polymeric nanoparticles are widely used in pharmaceutics for targeted drug delivery and cosmetics. The advantages over conventional systems are represented by an enhancement of delivery, an extended bioactivity, and also by minimal side effects, demonstrating high performance characteristics and more economical since minimum amounts of expensive drugs are used. In addition, novel miniaturized live-cell microdevices recently were developed by researchers around the world to screen free drug and complex delivery systems. For example, microfluidic cell-chips resolve many issues found in conventional 2D in vitro technology, providing benefits, such as reduced sample quantity and integration of 3D cell culture, physically more representative of the physiological/pathological microenvironment. To realize the full potential of these micro/nano systems, integrated platforms for preparation and testing need to be developed, offering a way to accelerate the clinical translation of novel drug delivery. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on novel micro and nano systems used in biomedicine, nanobiotechnology and drug delivery, with a particular interest in microscale cell-chip platforms for drug screening and high-throughput experimentation.

Prof. Dr. Claudio Nastruzzi
Dr. Gabriele Pitingolo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • micelles
  • liposomes
  • polymer nanoparticles
  • microparticles
  • microfluidic cell chip
  • microscale bioengineering
  • drug delivery systems

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessCommunication
Gelatin-Coated Microfluidic Channels for 3D Microtissue Formation: On-Chip Production and Characterization
Micromachines 2019, 10(4), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10040265
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
Traditional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture models are limited in their ability to reproduce human structures and functions. On the contrary, three-dimensional (3D) microtissues have the potential to permit the development of new cell-based assays as advanced in vitro models to test new drugs. [...] Read more.
Traditional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture models are limited in their ability to reproduce human structures and functions. On the contrary, three-dimensional (3D) microtissues have the potential to permit the development of new cell-based assays as advanced in vitro models to test new drugs. Here, we report the use of a dehydrated gelatin film to promote tumor cells aggregation and 3D microtissue formation. The simple and stable gelatin coating represents an alternative to conventional and expensive materials like type I collagen, hyaluronic acid, or matrigel. The gelatin coating is biocompatible with several culture formats including microfluidic chips, as well as standard micro-well plates. It also enables long-term 3D cell culture and in situ monitoring of live/dead assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano-system for Drug Delivery)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Stabilized Production of Lipid Nanoparticles of Tunable Size in Taylor Flow Glass Devices with High-Surface-Quality 3D Microchannels
Micromachines 2019, 10(4), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10040220
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 25 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
PDF Full-text (8113 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanoparticles as an application platform for active ingredients offer the advantage of efficient absorption and rapid dissolution in the organism, even in cases of poor water solubility. Active substances can either be presented directly as nanoparticles or can be integrated in a colloidal [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles as an application platform for active ingredients offer the advantage of efficient absorption and rapid dissolution in the organism, even in cases of poor water solubility. Active substances can either be presented directly as nanoparticles or can be integrated in a colloidal carrier system (e.g., lipid nanoparticles). For bottom-up nanoparticle production minimizing particle contamination, precipitation processes provide an adequate approach. Microfluidic systems ensure a precise control of mixing for the precipitation, which enables a tunable particle size definition. In this work, a gas/liquid Taylor flow micromixer made of chemically inert glass is presented, in which the organic phases are injected through a symmetric inlet structure. The 3D structuring of the glass was performed by femtosecond laser ablation. Rough microchannel walls are typically obtained by laser ablation but were smoothed by a subsequent annealing process resulting in lower hydrophilicity and even rounder channel cross-sections. Only with such smooth channel walls can a substantial reduction of fouling be obtained, allowing for stable operation over longer periods. The ultrafast mixing of the solutions could be adjusted by simply changing the gas volume flow rate. Narrow particle size distributions are obtained for smaller gas bubbles with a low backflow and when the rate of liquid volume flow has a small influence on particle precipitation. Therefore, nanoparticles with adjustable sizes of down to 70 nm could be reliably produced in continuous mode. Particle size distributions could be narrowed to a polydispersity value of 0.12. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano-system for Drug Delivery)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Empirical Modeling of Zn/ZnO Nanoparticles Decorated/Conjugated with Fotolon (Chlorine e6) Based Photodynamic Therapy towards Liver Cancer Treatment
Micromachines 2019, 10(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10010060
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The current study is based on Zn/ZnO nanoparticles photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated effects on healthy liver cells and cancerous cells. The synthesis of Zn/ZnO nanoparticles was accomplished using chemical and hydrothermal methods. The characterization of the synthesized nanoparticles was carried out using manifold [...] Read more.
The current study is based on Zn/ZnO nanoparticles photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated effects on healthy liver cells and cancerous cells. The synthesis of Zn/ZnO nanoparticles was accomplished using chemical and hydrothermal methods. The characterization of the synthesized nanoparticles was carried out using manifold techniques (e.g., transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)). In order to study the biotoxicity of the grown nanoparticles, they were applied individually and in conjunction with the third generation photosensitiser Fotolon (Chlorine e6) in the in vivo model of the normal liver of the Wister rat, and in the in vitro cancerous liver (HepG2) model both in the dark and under a variety of laser exposures (630 nm, Ultraviolet (UV) light). The localization of ZnO nanoparticles was observed by applying fluorescence spectroscopy on a 1 cm2 selected area of normal liver, whereas the in vitro cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection were carried out by calculating the loss in the cell viability of the hepatocellular model by applying a neutral red assay (NRA). Furthermore, a statistical analysis is carried out and it is ensured that the p value is less than 0.05. Thus, the current study has highlighted the potential for applying Zn/ZnO nanoparticles in photodynamic therapy that would lead to wider medical applications to improve the efficiency of cancer treatment and its biological aspect study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano-system for Drug Delivery)
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