Power Electronics and Sensors

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "A:Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020) | Viewed by 24326

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Automotive Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea
Interests: sensors; power electronics; electronics for vehicles; electronics reliability
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Power electronics process and control electric energy to be suitably used by user loads, and have diverse applications including smart grids, renewable energies, power supplies, motor drives, and electrified vehicles. In addition, recent power electronics vigorously investigate new devices (e.g., silicon carbide or gallium nitride power semiconductors), components (e.g., inductors, transformers, capacitors), and power module structures. Because of these reasons, the calibration and evaluation of power electronics are important, and their reliability and lifetime estimation are also inevitable. Thus, sensors for power electronics are becoming more crucial. Power electronics sensors need to characterize current, voltage, power, electromagnetics, temperature, thermal-stress, etc. In addition, depending on their applications, it is often necessary to customize their performances, such as bandwidth, accuracy, differential operation, or electrical isolation. Therefore, sensors used in power electronics should be developed considering their usages and specialized by their levels, e.g., power device, power module, and power-electronics system levels.

Dr. Sang Won Yoon
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Sensors for power electronics
  • Sensors for power devices
  • Sensors for power modules
  • Sensors for power electronics systems

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 4272 KiB  
Article
Thermal Impedance Characterization Using Optical Measurement Assisted by Multi-Physics Simulation for Multi-Chip SiC MOSFET Module
by Min-Ki Kim and Sang Won Yoon
Micromachines 2020, 11(12), 1060; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11121060 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4108
Abstract
In this paper, an approach to determine the thermal impedance of a multi-chip silicon carbide (SiC) power module is proposed, by fusing optical measurement and multi-physics simulations. The tested power module consists of four parallel SiC metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and four [...] Read more.
In this paper, an approach to determine the thermal impedance of a multi-chip silicon carbide (SiC) power module is proposed, by fusing optical measurement and multi-physics simulations. The tested power module consists of four parallel SiC metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and four parallel SiC Schottky barrier diodes. This study mainly relies on junction temperature measurements performed using fiber optic temperature sensors instead of temperature-sensitive electrical parameters (TESPs). However, the fiber optics provide a relatively slow response compared to other available TSEP measurement methods and cannot detect fast responses. Therefore, the region corresponding to undetected signals is estimated via multi-physics simulations of the power module. This method provides a compensated cooling curve. We analyze the thermal resistance using network identification by deconvolution (NID). The estimated thermal resistance is compared to that obtained via a conventional method, and the difference is 3.8%. The proposed fusion method is accurate and reliable and does not require additional circuits or calibrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Electronics and Sensors)
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15 pages, 12024 KiB  
Article
A Capacitive Pressure Sensor Interface IC with Wireless Power and Data Transfer
by Chaoping Zhang, Robert Gallichan, David M. Budgett and Daniel McCormick
Micromachines 2020, 11(10), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11100897 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3970
Abstract
This paper presents a capacitive pressure sensor interface circuit design in 180 nm XH018 CMOS technology for an implantable capacitive pressure sensor, which has a wireless power supply and wireless data transfer function. It integrates full-bridge rectifiers, shorting control switches, low-dropout regulators, bandgap [...] Read more.
This paper presents a capacitive pressure sensor interface circuit design in 180 nm XH018 CMOS technology for an implantable capacitive pressure sensor, which has a wireless power supply and wireless data transfer function. It integrates full-bridge rectifiers, shorting control switches, low-dropout regulators, bandgap references, analog front end, single slope analog to digital converter (ADC), I2C, and an RC oscillator. The low-dropout regulators regulate the wireless power supply coming from the rectifier and provide a stable and accurate 1.8 V DC voltage to other blocks. The capacitance of the pressure sensor is sampled to a discrete voltage by the analog front end. The single slope ADC converts the discrete voltage into 11 bits of digital data, which is then converted into 1 kbps serial data out by the I2C block. The “1” of serial data is modulated to a 500 kHz digital signal that is used to control the shorting switch for wireless data transfer via inductive back scatter. This capacitive pressure sensor interface IC has a resolution of 0.98 mmHg (1.4 fF), average total power consumption of 7.8 mW, and ±3.2% accuracy at the worst case under a −20 to 80 °C temperature range, which improves to ±0.86% when operated between 20 and 60 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Electronics and Sensors)
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17 pages, 1118 KiB  
Article
Single-Switching Reachable Operation Points in a DC-DC Buck Converter: An Approximation from Time Optimal Control
by Ilya Dikariev, Fabiola Angulo and David Angulo-Garcia
Micromachines 2020, 11(9), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11090834 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1869
Abstract
In this paper, we study the time optimal control problem in a DC-DC buck converter in the underdamped oscillatory regime. In particular, we derive analytic expressions for the admissible regions in the state space, satisfying the condition that every point within the region [...] Read more.
In this paper, we study the time optimal control problem in a DC-DC buck converter in the underdamped oscillatory regime. In particular, we derive analytic expressions for the admissible regions in the state space, satisfying the condition that every point within the region is reachable in optimal time with a single switching action. We then make use of the general result to establish the minimum and maximum variation allowed to the load in two predefined design set-ups that fulfills the time optimal single switching criteria. Finally, we make use of numerical simulations to show the performance of the proposed control under changes in the reference voltage and load resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Electronics and Sensors)
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16 pages, 7039 KiB  
Article
AC/DC Fields Demodulation Methods of Resonant Electric Field Microsensor
by Pengfei Yang, Xiaolong Wen, Zhaozhi Chu, Xiaoming Ni and Chunrong Peng
Micromachines 2020, 11(5), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11050511 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2840
Abstract
Electric field microsensors have the advantages of a small size, a low power consumption, of avoiding wear, and of measuring both direct-current (DC) and alternating-current (AC) fields, which are especially suited to applications in power systems. However, previous reports were chiefly concerned with [...] Read more.
Electric field microsensors have the advantages of a small size, a low power consumption, of avoiding wear, and of measuring both direct-current (DC) and alternating-current (AC) fields, which are especially suited to applications in power systems. However, previous reports were chiefly concerned with proposing new structures or improving the resolution, and there are no systematic studies on the signal characteristics of the microsensor output and the demodulation methods under different electric fields. In this paper, the use of an improved resonant microsensor with coplanar electrodes, and the signal characteristics under a DC field, power frequency field, and AC/DC hybrid fields were thoroughly analyzed respectively, and matching demodulation methods derived from synchronous detection were proposed. We theoretically obtained that the frequencies of the detectable electric fields should be less than half of the resonant frequency of the microsensor, and that the sensitivities of the microsensor were identical for AC/DC hybrid fields with different frequencies. Experiments were conducted to verify the proposed demodulation methods. Within electric field ranges of 0–667 kV/m, the uncertainties were 2.4% and 1.5% for the most common DC and 50 Hz power frequency fields, respectively. The frequency characteristic test results of the microsensor were in agreement with those of the theoretical analysis in the range of 0–1 kHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Electronics and Sensors)
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Review

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29 pages, 3340 KiB  
Review
Overview of Power Electronic Switches: A Summary of the Past, State-of-the-Art and Illumination of the Future
by Immanuel N. Jiya and Rupert Gouws
Micromachines 2020, 11(12), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11121116 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 10855
Abstract
As the need for green and effective utilization of energy continues to grow, the advancements in the energy and power electronics industry are constantly driven by this need, as both industries are intertwined for obvious reasons. The developments in the power electronics industry [...] Read more.
As the need for green and effective utilization of energy continues to grow, the advancements in the energy and power electronics industry are constantly driven by this need, as both industries are intertwined for obvious reasons. The developments in the power electronics industry has over the years hinged on the progress of the semiconductor device industry. The semiconductor device industry could be said to be on the edge of a turn into a new era, a paradigm shift from the conventional silicon devices to the wide band gap semiconductor technologies. While a lot of work is being done in research and manufacturing sectors, it is important to look back at the past, evaluate the current progress and look at the prospects of the future of this industry. This paper is unique at this time because it seeks to give a good summary of the past, the state-of-the-art, and highlight the opportunities for future improvements. A more or less ‘forgotten’ power electronic switch, the four-quadrant switch, is highlighted as an opportunity waiting to be exploited as this switch presents a potential for achieving an ideal switch. Figures of merit for comparing semiconductor materials and devices are also presented in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Electronics and Sensors)
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