Special Issue "Forming and Heat Treatment of Modern Metallic Materials"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Ján Moravec
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Tecnological Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Univesity of Zilina, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina, Slovak Republic
Interests: Mechanical technologies, especially in the field of metal forming technologies and their alloys; Design of molding tools; Area of plasticity of metals; Analyzes of metal forming processes and material analysis; Simulation in shaping; Unconventional molding technologies, preferably magnetic field molding; Hydroforming
Assoc. Prof. Karel Gryc
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Environmental Research Department, Faculty of Technology, The Institue of Technology and Business in České Budějovice, Okružní 517/10, 370 01 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
Interests: Metallurgical technologies, especially in the field of production line optimization of steels and non-ferrous metals by utilization of simulation tools; material analysis and laboratory experiments and operational verifications.
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Forming and heat treatment of metals are crucial technologies for final metallic material processing on the end of production line before incorporating them into the final products or crucial components of more and more demanding systems required for the sustainability and development and of our civilization.

Thus, the content of this Special Issue “Forming and Heat Treatment of Modern Metallic Materials” focuses not only on standard technologies, but also on new procedures and approaches verified in laboratory and operational conditions. Contributions to this issue will represent papers from the academic sphere as well as the production sphere. Topics covering the wide spectrum of various ways of production and solutions based on non-conventional approaches mostly derived from physical knowledge are welcome. Papers should provide a base for further use and extraction of introduced knowledge by scientific and technical society.

This Special Issue is open to anyone who is familiar with the current state of metal forming and/or heat treatment technologies. Papers about conventional and non-conventional technologies of metal forming, rolling processes, production of tubes, forming of aluminum alloys and heating, as important elements of every heat molding process and in the protection of active parts of forming tools, are welcome. Hardening, tempering, and annealing, as well as standard procedures of heat treatment, without which it is not possible to perform any metal forming or heat treatment, and their irreplaceable roles are also of interest. Papers exploring mathematical and physical simulation introduced processes are also welcome.


Assoc. Prof. Ján Moravec
Assoc. Prof. Karel Gryc
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Forming
  • Rolling
  • Forging
  • Tube making
  • Heat treatment
  • Annealing
  • Quenching
  • Hardening
  • Deposition
  • Forming tools

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Impact of the Gas Inlet Position, Flow Rate, and Strip Velocity on the Temperature Distribution of a Stainless-Steel Strips during the Hardening Process
Metals 2019, 9(9), 928; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9090928 - 24 Aug 2019
Abstract
A non-uniform temperature across the width of martensitic stainless-steel strips is considered to be one of the main reasons why the strip exhibits un-flatness defects during the hardening process. Therefore, the effect of the gas inlet position in this process, on the temperature [...] Read more.
A non-uniform temperature across the width of martensitic stainless-steel strips is considered to be one of the main reasons why the strip exhibits un-flatness defects during the hardening process. Therefore, the effect of the gas inlet position in this process, on the temperature distribution of the steel strip was investigated numerically. Furthermore, an infrared thermal imaging camera was used to compare the model predictions and the actual process data. The results showed that the temperature difference across the width of the strip decreased by 9% and 14% relative to the calculated temperature and measured values, respectively, when the gas inlet position was changed. This temperature investigation was performed at a position about 63 mm from the bath interface. Moreover, a more symmetrical temperature distribution was observed across the width of the strip. In addition, this study showed that by increasing the amount of the hydrogen flow rate by 2 Nm3/h, a 20% reduction of temperature difference across the width of strip was predicted. Meanwhile, the results show that the effect of the strip velocity on the strip temperature is very small. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forming and Heat Treatment of Modern Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Developing Improved Mechanical Property and Corrosion Resistance of Mg-9Li Alloy via Solid-Solution Treatment
Metals 2019, 9(9), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9090920 - 22 Aug 2019
Abstract
Cast Mg-9Li alloy was successfully solid-solution (SS) treated via heating at 575 °C for 4.5 h and rapidly quenched with ice-water mixture. The mechanical property and corrosion resistance of the SS alloy were simultaneously improved. Rapid bcc/hcp phase transition of the alloy occurred [...] Read more.
Cast Mg-9Li alloy was successfully solid-solution (SS) treated via heating at 575 °C for 4.5 h and rapidly quenched with ice-water mixture. The mechanical property and corrosion resistance of the SS alloy were simultaneously improved. Rapid bcc/hcp phase transition of the alloy occurred during the quenching process, creating the newly precipitated needle-like fine α-Mg phase, uniformly distributed in the β-Li phase matrix. Dramatic grain refinement and uniform distribution of the α-Mg phase, as well as the massively increased α/β phase interfaces, are factors leading to the improved mechanical property of the SS alloy. Meanwhile, due to the modified duplex-phase structure, the SS alloy has a uniform corrosion-resistant surface film on the β-Li phase, which completely covers the entire alloy surface and efficiently protects the substrate. In addition, the SS alloy has fewer difference in the elements concentration and corrosion activity of the duplex phases, which reduces the pitting sensitivity and improves the corrosion resistance of the alloy matrix. The findings in this binary Mg-Li alloy can also serve as a benchmark for other more practical and complicated Mg-Li alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forming and Heat Treatment of Modern Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
An investigation of the Temperature Distribution of a Thin Steel Strip during the Quenching Step of a Hardening Process
Metals 2019, 9(6), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9060675 - 11 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The dimension quality of the strip within the hardening process is an essential parameter, which great attention needs to be paid. The flatness of the final product is influenced by the temperature distribution of the strip, specifically across the width direction. Therefore, based [...] Read more.
The dimension quality of the strip within the hardening process is an essential parameter, which great attention needs to be paid. The flatness of the final product is influenced by the temperature distribution of the strip, specifically across the width direction. Therefore, based on physical theories, a numerical model was established. The temperature of the strip for the section before the martensitic transformation was objected in the predicted model by using a steady state approach. In addition an infrared thermal imaging camera was applied in the real process in order to validate the results and to improve the boundary conditions of the numerical model. The results revealed that the temperature of strip decreased up to 250 °C within the area between the furnace and the quenching bath. This, in turn, resulted in significant temperature difference across the width of the strip. This difference can be up to 69 °C and 41 °C according to the numerical results and thermal imaging data, respectively. Overall, this study gave a better insight into the cooling step in the hardening process. In addition, this investigation can be used to improve the hardening process as well as an input for future thermal stress investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forming and Heat Treatment of Modern Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Bipolar Plate Forming with Various Die Configurations by Magnetic Pulse Method
Metals 2019, 9(4), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9040453 - 17 Apr 2019
Abstract
Bipolar plates are a major part of fuel cells, which are a clean and recyclable energy source. This study was carried out with two dies for a bipolar plate forming investigation with the magnetic pulse method: a bipolar plate die and a 10-channel [...] Read more.
Bipolar plates are a major part of fuel cells, which are a clean and recyclable energy source. This study was carried out with two dies for a bipolar plate forming investigation with the magnetic pulse method: a bipolar plate die and a 10-channel die. With the bipolar plate die, the forming of bipolar plates with a Cu110 sheet and a Grade 2 Ti sheet indicated that the bipolar plate die needed optimization for a full replication. The obtained maximum average depth percentage was 86% for a Cu110 sheet, while it was 54% for a Grade 2 Ti sheet in this study. A further increase of the depth percentage is possible but requires a much higher capacitor bank energy. The increase of the capacitor bank energy would result in severe tearing, while the depth percentage increase was little. The primary current and flyer velocity were measured at various capacitor bank energies. With the 10-channel die, the die parameters’ effect on metal sheet forming was investigated with a Cu110 sheet and an SS201 sheet. The draft angle had a significant effect on the replication of the die surface. The full replication was achieved for channels with proper parameters with both a Cu110 sheet and an SS201 sheet. Therefore, the bipolar plate die could be optimized based on the 10-channel die results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forming and Heat Treatment of Modern Metallic Materials)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: The Sheet Metal Forming in Magnetic Accelerator
Authors: Moravec, J.1,*, Gryc, K.2, Socha, L.2, Vestenický, M.1
Affiliations:
1 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina, Slovakia
2 Faculty of Technology—Environmental Research Department, The institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice, Okružní 517/20, 370 01 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: [email protected]
Abstract: Author's paper deals with sheet metal technology using magnetic field. The design is made using the original device designed by the authors. Shaped sheet metal parts of various thickness are attached to a special holder. The dependence between the magnitude of the magnetic field, the length of the solenoid incorporated in the device and the thickness of the material was observed. Experimental verification has brought new insights and findings to gain the expansion of a leading department. Contribution is complemented by detailed calculations, diagrams, images and metallographic sample observations.A study of the effects of process parameters on formed parts surface integrity in conventional metal spinning by laser textured roller.
Keywords: sheet metal; magnetic field; solenoid; metallography

Title: Coating of Active Parts of Forming Tools
Authors: Gryc, K.1, Moravec, J.2,*, Socha, L.1, Zrak, A.2
Affiliations:
1 Faculty of Technology—Environmental Research Department, The institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice, Okružní 517/20, 370 01 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
2 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina, Slovakia
*Correspondence: [email protected]
Abstract: The correct choice of tool steel and precise heat treatment of active parts of cold working tools are necessary and necessary to guarantee their proper functionality. The tools so heat treated do not always meet the required quality, durability and service life of the active parts. In some cases, losses due to improper heat treatment occur. Their frequent exchanges also outweigh the total set cost of the tool and negatively affect the price of the products produced. One of the ways to deal with these negative aspects is to apply one of a wide range of coatings designed for this sphere. The layer produces a thin and strong, abrasion-resistant coating. On the basis of the experimental work carried out and the operational tests carried out under the press conditions, the authors formulate conclusions and findings for this area. The work brings new findings and extends the department to new, unpublished results that are formulated into conclusions that apply generally.
Keywords: coating; heat treatment; active parts tool

Title: A Study of the Effects of Process Parameters on Formed Parts Surface Integrity in Conventional Metal Spinning by Laser Textured Roller
Authors: Šugárová Jana *, Šugár Peter, Frnčík Martin and Ludrovcová Barbora
Affiliation: Faculty of Material Science and Technology in Trnava, Institute of Production of Technologies, Slovak University of Technology, Jána Bottu 25, 917 24 Trnava, Slovakia
*Correspondence: [email protected]
Abstract: Metal spinning is one of a number of flexible sheet metal forming processes which is giving a cost effective option for production of the parts with very high strength to weight ratios combined with low cost and specific properties of spun parts surface layers. In this study the results of spinning experiments carried out on DCO1 steel where the impact of mandrel speed, feed ratio, tool path profile on formed part surface integrity parameters (surface roughness, mechanical hardening and residual stresses) are evaluated. The spinning roller with surface layer modified by laser texturing is used and the results are compared with those when a non-textured type of roler is applied. The research showed a possitive effect of textured roller on the final properties of surface and sub-surface layers of formed part.
Keywords: conventional metal spinning; laser surface texturing; surface integrity

Title: Research of Plasticity and Formability of Dual Phase Steel DP 450
Authors: Bílik Jozef *, Tittel Viktor, Sobota Róbert and Šuba Roland
Affiliation: Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, Slovak Affiliation: University of Technology in Bratislava, Jána Bottu 25, 917 24 Trnava, Slovak Republic
*Correspondence: [email protected]
Abstract: Automotive industry has significant share on worldwide industrial production. Significantly contributes to research and development of new materials, development of new production methods and production operations. One of steel types developed and used especially in automotive industry are dual phase steels. The paper is focused on study of plasticity and formability of dual phase steel DP 450, which is used in automotive industry. The paper shows results from tensile test for plasticity determination and also results of technological tests for complex evaluation of formability. These consisted from Erichsen cup test, Fukui test, Schmidt test and bending tests. At chosen tests of material formability with results mentioned in tables above the final state of strain corresponds well with state of strain created during real parts manufacturing. The results therefore gives real picture about material behaviour at real processing conditions. The paper shows also results of microhardness measurement.
Keywords: plasticity; formability; dual phase steel; tensile test; Erichsen cup test; Fukui test; Schmidt test

Title: The seam tubes forming of austenitic steels
Authors: Schrek Alexander 1,*, Švec Pavol 1, Brusilová Alena 1, Gábrišová Zuzana 1 and Moravec Ján 2
Affiliations:
1 Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Slovak Republic
2 University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Slovak Republic
* Correspondence: [email protected]
Abstract: During the seam tubes of austenitic stainless steel processing are there developed states negatively influencing drawing process. The desired final dimensions – diameter Æ0.34 mm and wall thickness 0.057 mm have been limited factors of analysed production process. The initial workpiece was a seam tube of steel 1.4306 and 1.4301 of producers KRUPP THYSSEN and ERGSTE WESTIG with longitudinal weld line created by TIG welding. The analyse was focused on stress-strain states during ironing and tube drawing, microstructure analysis of a base material and welding joint, drawing processes modelling and simulation and analytical expression of eccentricity conditions and its effect on drawing stability. There was found the weld thermal field in the welding joint zone causes such changes in material that will influence unfavourably on plasticity at single drawing operations. It is necessary to ensure sufficient inert gas flow rate during creating weld joint in air protective chamber which cooling effect decreases danger of chromium carbide precipitation along grain boundaries and plasticity degradation.
Keywords: seam tube; austenitic stainless steel; TIG welding; drawing stability; plasticity; thermal field; eccentricity

Title: Study of Hot Deformation Behavior of Low-Alloyed Steel 10CrMo9-10 by Means of Processing Maps
Authors: Petr Opěla 1,*, Petr Kawulok 1, Rostislav Kawulok 1, Ľudovít Parilák 2 and Pavol Buček 2
Affiliations:
1 VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, 17. listopadu 2172/15, 70800 Ostrava, Czech Republic
2 ŽP VVC s.r.o., Kolkáreň 35, 97681 Podbrezová, Slovak Republic
* Correspondence: [email protected]
Abstract:
Processing maps embody a supportive tool for the hot forming optimization. Based on the dynamic material model, the processing maps of the 10CrMo9-10 low-alloyed steel have been assembled with the use of two flow curve datasets. The first one has been obtained on the basis of uniaxial hot compression tests in the temperature range of 1073 K–1523 K and the strain rate range of 0.1 s−1–100 s−1. This experimental dataset was subsequently approximated by means of an artificial neural network approach. Based on this approximation, the second (predicted) dataset has been calculated. The resulting maps reveal the instability domains in the combination with the low values of efficiency of power dissipation at the lower temperatures. This fact indicates these temperatures as forming inappropriate. This assumption was also confirmed by the results of low-temperature ductility which were detected by uniaxial tensile tests.
Keywords:
hot flow curves; approximation; artificial neural networks; processing maps

Title: Flow Stress and Hot Deformation Activation Energy of Aluminium Alloy 6082 Influenced by Initial Structure State
Authors: Ivo Schindler 1,*, Petr Kawulok 1, Vladivoj Očenášek 2, Petr Opěla 1 and Rostislav Kawulok 1
Affiliations:
1 VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, 17. listopadu 2172/15, 70800 Ostrava, Czech Republic
2 SVUM a.s., Tovární 2053, 25088 Čelákovice, Czech Republic
* Correspondence: [email protected]
Abstract: Stress-strain curves of the aluminium alloy 6082 with 1.2Si–0.51Mg–0.75Mn (wt.%) were determined by the uniaxial compression tests at temperature 450–550 °C and strain rate 0.5–10 s-1. Initial structure state corresponded to three processing types: as-cast structure non-homogenized or homogenized at 500 °C, and the structure after homogenization and hot extrusion. Significantly higher flow stress appeared in case of low-temperature forming of the non-homogenized material. Hot deformation activation energy Q-values varied between 99 and 122 kJ·mol-1 for both homogenized materials and from 200 to 216 kJ·mol-1 for the as-cast state, while the Q-values calculated from the measured steady-state stress were always higher than those calculated from the peak stress values. For the extruded state of alloy 6082, the physically-based model was developed to reliably predict the flow stress influenced by dynamic softening, temperature, strain rate and true strain up to 0.6.
Keywords: aluminium alloy; microstructure; hot deformation; activation energy; flow stress model

Title: Structures of Thermal Drilling Joinings
Authors: Sobotova Lydia 1,*, Badida Miroslav 1 and Maslejova Alica 2
Affiliations:
1 Technical University of Kosice, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, Letna 9, 042 00 Kosice, Slovakia
2 U.S. Steel Kosice s.r.o., Vstupný areál U.S. Steel, 044 54 Košice, Slovakia
* Correspondence: [email protected]
Abstract: With the development of automotive industry, the reqiurements for rapid material processing as joining, replacment of materials have increased in recent years. The material joinings of assembly units have to withstand the  higher loads in the varied conditions with the great emphasis being placed on simplicity, number of joinings, a load and a weight reducing, the reliability and the safety. The contribution solves the problem of  joinings by new Flowdrill method that uses physical factors such as friction, temperature and force to forming and creating  joinings, reduces production time,  improves the quality of joinings and reduces the waste in a production. The aim of the contribution was to verify, to describe and to evaluate the behavior of selected materials under different technological conditions. The created budhings with or without threading and grains deformation in the critical places were evaluated by macro and microstructures. The  chemical composition was performed by EDX analyzer.
Keywords: thermal drilling; joining; material; deformation; microstructure

Title: Innovation in technological processes from the point of view of limit deformations and their impact on mechanical properties
Authors: Martin Ridzoň 1, Milan Mojziš 1, Ľudovít Parilak 1,3, Jozef Bílik 2 and Ivan Buransky 2
Affiliations:
1
ZP VVC, Kolkáreň 35, 976 81, Podbrezová, Slovakia;
2 Faculty of Materials Science and Technology STU in Trnava, Slovakia;
3 TUKE, Faculty of Manufacturing Technologies with a seat in Prešov, Slovakia.
* Correspondence: [email protected]
Abstract: The paper deals with the innovation of the technological process from the point of view of limit deformations expressed in terms of total reduction in individual draws. It describes in detail the analysis of mechanical properties, microhardness and other input technological parameters for validation of the newly proposed technological process in operating conditions. In the evaluation we also focused on the final geometric dimension of the tube using the specified limit deformations. Innovation resp. Determination of limit deformations for drawing precision seamless tubes of E235 was realized for the current technological process consisting of 5 runs in which the were 7 draws. Innovation is based on the rationalization of the technological process, i.e., omit one run, which includes swaging, chemical treatment, itself drawing process, and heat intermediate annealing.
Keywords: technological process; deformation; reduction; drawing; tube

Title: The influence of technological parameters of cold drawn seamless precision tubes used in the automotive industry on geometric stability
Authors: Martin Ridzoň 1, Milan Mojžiš 1, Michal Kán 1,2, Ján Turňa 1,2, Peter Bella 1, Ivan Buránsky 2 and Ľudovít Parilák 1,3
Affiliations:
1 ZP VVC, Kolkáreň 35, 976 81, Podbrezová, Slovakia;
2 Faculty of Materials Science and Technology STU in Trnava, Slovakia;
3 TUKE, Faculty of Manufacturing Technologies with a seat in Prešov, Slovakia.
* Correspondence: [email protected]
Abstract: In the production portfolio of Zeleziarne Podbrezová (ZP) the cold-drawn seamless tubes that are used in the automotive industry are notable. These drawn tubes are made of boiler grade steel and, in their manufacture, it is very important to adhere to strict tolerances to the prescribed geometry. Given these requirements, it is necessary in the process of drawing itself, to monitor all technological parameters, which may in some way affect the stability of dimensional quality. From the view of these conditions is compliance with the geometric tolerances tribological pair (tool - tube) key parameter to prevent changes in the technological conditions of the drawing. The aim of this article is to track and map all technological parameters such as the temperature of the tribological pair and the pulling force measured in the pulling process. Another parameter to monitor boiler quality is the mechanical properties of the material. Last but not least, the main objective of these analyses is to monitor the dimensional stability of the drawn tubes and to adhere to strict tolerances to the outer dimension and the wall thickness.
Keywords: cold drawing; boiler grade steel; technological parameters; tribological pair; geometric stability; temperature

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