Environmental Exposures and Cardiovascular Disease

A special issue of Metabolites (ISSN 2218-1989). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Metabolomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 4745

Special Issue Editors

Institute of Basic Medical Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
Interests: air pollution; heavy metals; epidemiology; cohort study
Institute of Basic Medical Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
Interests: epidemiology; public health; nutrition and dietetics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China
Interests: environmental epidemiology; reproductive health; air pollution; climate change
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Public Health, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
Interests: air pollution; climate change; environmental epidemiology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death, despite considerable advances in its prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Previous prevention efforts mainly focused on individual governed modifiable factors, while increasing studies indicate that environmental factors also play important roles in the development and occurrence of CVD. It has been reported that 4.8 million CVD deaths are attributable to environment factors every year. Therefore, more studies are needed to identify new environmental risk exposures, confirm causal associations, reveal underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, and find mitigation strategies to decrease the CVD risk.

Current evidence is mainly focused on the individual effect of some environment factors. However, evidence on the joint effect of various environmental factors is still limited; after all, humans in real-world scenarios are simultaneously exposed to many environmental factors such as air pollution, heavy metals, pesticides, perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances, etc. In addition, the evidence level of the causal relationships still needs to be strengthened. Additionally, the underlying mechanisms of the cardiometabolic effects of environmental exposures have not been fully understood yet. Instead of death or incident CVD outcomes, more studies are encouraged to focus on early metabolites or markers of CVD, which are helpful to reveal underlying pathways. Finally, the beneficial effect of green space and its interactive effect with other harmful environmental factors need to be explored, which are helpful to draw prevention strategies.

The goal of this Special Issue topic is to shed light on the causal associations, underlying mechanisms, and mitigation strategies of environmental factors and CVD, and on future challenges to provide a thorough overview of the state of the art of environmental exposures and CVD. This article collection will inspire, inform, and provide direction and guidance to researchers in the field.

Dr. Qun Xu
Dr. Ang Li
Dr. Yuewei Liu
Dr. Yunquan Zhang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • environmental pollutants
  • air pollution
  • perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances
  • cardiovascular disease
  • cardiometabolic risk factor

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 1507 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Impacts of Diurnal Temperature Range on Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease: A Nationwide Prospective Cohort Study
by Haosu Tang, Xin Wang, Yuting Kang, Congyi Zheng, Xue Cao, Yixin Tian, Zhen Hu, Linfeng Zhang, Zuo Chen, Yuxin Song, Runqing Gu, Jiayin Cai, Gang Huang and Zengwu Wang
Metabolites 2022, 12(12), 1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12121287 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1712
Abstract
Previous studies have documented the associations between short-term diurnal temperature range (DTR) exposure and cardiovascular disease (CVD) via time-series analyses. However, the long-term impacts of DTR through a population-based prospective cohort have not been elucidated thoroughly. This study aimed to quantify the longitudinal [...] Read more.
Previous studies have documented the associations between short-term diurnal temperature range (DTR) exposure and cardiovascular disease (CVD) via time-series analyses. However, the long-term impacts of DTR through a population-based prospective cohort have not been elucidated thoroughly. This study aimed to quantify the longitudinal association of DTR exposure with all-cause mortality and CVD in a nationwide prospective cohort and, by extension, project future DTR changes across China under climate change. We included 22,702 adults (median age 56.1 years, 53.7% women) free of CVD at baseline from a nationwide cross-sectional study in China during 2012–2015, and examined three health outcomes during a follow-up survey in 2018–2019. We estimated the chronic DTR exposure as baseline annual mean daily maximum minus minimum temperature. The Cox proportional hazards regression was adopted to assess the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI). We employed 31 downscaled global climate models under two shared socioeconomic pathways for future projection. During the median follow-up period of ~5 years, 1096 subjects died due to all causes while 993 and 597 individuals developed fatal or nonfatal CVD and fatal or nonfatal stroke, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of all-cause mortality, CVD, and stroke were 10.49, 9.45, and 5.64 per 1000 person-years, respectively. In the fully adjusted models, the risks for all-cause mortality, CVD, and stroke would increase by 13% (95% CI: 8–18%), 12% (95% CI: 7–18%), and 9% (95% CI: 2–16%) per 1 °C increment in DTR, respectively. Moreover, linear positive associations for the concentration–response curves between DTR and mortality and CVD were observed. We also found significantly greater DTR-related mortality risks among rural residents than their urban counterparts. The DTR changes featured a dipole pattern across China under a warming climate. The southern (northern) China would experience increased (decreased) DTR exposure by the end of 21st century. The present study indicates that chronic DTR exposure can exert long-term impacts on mortality and CVD risks, which may inform future public health policies on DTR-related susceptible population and regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Exposures and Cardiovascular Disease)
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9 pages, 237 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Occupational Metal Exposure and Hypertension Risk Based on Conditional Logistic Regression Analysis
by Huiling Qian, Guangming Li, Yongbin Luo, Xiaolei Fu, Siyu Wan, Xiaoli Mao, Wenjun Yin, Zhiteng Min, Jinfeng Jiang, Guilin Yi and Xiaodong Tan
Metabolites 2022, 12(12), 1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12121259 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1309
Abstract
Occupational exposure is a significant source of metal contact; previous studies have been limited regarding the effect of occupational metal exposure on the development of hypertension. This study was conducted to assess the levels of exposure of certain metals (chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), [...] Read more.
Occupational exposure is a significant source of metal contact; previous studies have been limited regarding the effect of occupational metal exposure on the development of hypertension. This study was conducted to assess the levels of exposure of certain metals (chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni)) in hypertensive and non-hypertensive workers and to assess the relationship between the risk of hypertension and metal exposure level. Our study included 138 hypertensive patients as case groups and 138 non-hypertensive participants as controls. The exposure risk level was divided according to the limit value after collecting and testing the metal dust in the workshop. Considering the influence of single- and poly-metal, single factor analysis and conditional logistic regression analysis of poly-metal were carried out. The results of the model indicated that the incidence of hypertension increased with an increase in Cr exposure level, and the risk of hypertension was 1.85 times higher in the highest exposure than in the lowest exposure (95% CI: 1.20–2.86, p < 0.05). Mn has the same effect as Cr. There was no significant correlation between Fe or Ni and hypertension. Our findings suggested that Cr and Mn exposure in the work environment might increase the risk of hypertension, while no effect of Fe and Ni on blood pressure was found. Prospective study designs in larger populations are needed to confirm our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Exposures and Cardiovascular Disease)

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16 pages, 526 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Association between Maternal Urinary Phthalate Concentrations and Blood Pressure in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Mengyue Zhang, Jianchao Qiao, Pinpeng Xie, Zhuoyan Li, Chengyang Hu and Fei Li
Metabolites 2023, 13(7), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13070812 - 30 Jun 2023
Viewed by 893
Abstract
Phthalates are commonly found in a wide range of environments and have been linked to several negative health outcomes. While earlier research indicated a potential connection between phthalate exposure and blood pressure (BP) during pregnancy, the results of these studies remain inconclusive. The [...] Read more.
Phthalates are commonly found in a wide range of environments and have been linked to several negative health outcomes. While earlier research indicated a potential connection between phthalate exposure and blood pressure (BP) during pregnancy, the results of these studies remain inconclusive. The objective of this meta-analysis was to elucidate the relationship between phthalate exposure and BP in pregnancy. A comprehensive literature search was carried out with PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science, and pertinent studies published up until 5 March 2023 were reviewed. Random-effects models were utilized to consolidate the findings of continuous outcomes, such as diastolic and systolic BP, as well as the binary outcomes of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). The present study included a total of 10 studies. First-trimester MBP exposure exhibited a positive association with mean systolic and diastolic BP during both the second and third trimesters (β = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.27, 1.83, I2 = 93%; β = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.74, I2 = 71%, respectively). Second-trimester monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) exposure was positively associated with systolic and diastolic BP in the third trimester (β = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.01, 1.13, I2 = 0; β = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.27, 1.13, I2 = 0, respectively). Conversely, first-trimester mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) exposure demonstrated a negative association with mean systolic and diastolic BP during the second and third trimesters (β = −0.32, 95% CI: −0.60, −0.05, I2 = 0; β = −0.32, 95% CI: −0.60, −0.05, I2 = 0, respectively). Additionally, monoethyl phthalate (MEP) exposure was found to be associated with an increased risk of HDP (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.23, I2 = 26%). Our study found that several phthalate metabolites were associated with increased systolic and diastolic BP, as well as the risk of HDP across pregnancies. Nevertheless, given the limited number of studies analyzed, additional research is essential to corroborate these findings and elucidate the molecular mechanisms linking phthalates to BP changes during pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Exposures and Cardiovascular Disease)
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