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Vitamin D Sources, Metabolism, and Deficiency: Available Compounds and Guidelines for Its Treatment

Geriatric Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Palermo, Via del Vespro 141, 90127 Palermo, Italy
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Academic Editors: Antonino Catalano and Domenico Santoro
Metabolites 2021, 11(4), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11040255
Received: 25 March 2021 / Revised: 15 April 2021 / Accepted: 16 April 2021 / Published: 20 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Bone Metabolism)
Studies on vitamin/hormone D deficiency have received a vast amount of attention in recent years, particularly concerning recommendations, guidelines, and treatments. Moreover, vitamin D’s role as a hormone has been confirmed in various enzymatic, metabolic, physiological, and pathophysiological processes related to many organs and systems in the human body. This growing interest is mostly due to the evidence that modest-to-severe vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent around the world. There is broad agreement that optimal vitamin D status is necessary for bones, muscles, and one’s general health, as well as for the efficacy of antiresorptive and anabolic bone-forming treatments. Food supplementation with vitamin D, or the use of vitamin D supplements, are current strategies to improve vitamin D levels and treat deficiency. This article reviews consolidated and emerging concepts about vitamin D/hormone D metabolism, food sources, deficiency, as well as the different vitamin D supplements available, and current recommendations on the proper use of these compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; cholecalciferol; calcifediol; calcitriol; bone; fracture; osteoporosis vitamin D; cholecalciferol; calcifediol; calcitriol; bone; fracture; osteoporosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dominguez, L.J.; Farruggia, M.; Veronese, N.; Barbagallo, M. Vitamin D Sources, Metabolism, and Deficiency: Available Compounds and Guidelines for Its Treatment. Metabolites 2021, 11, 255. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11040255

AMA Style

Dominguez LJ, Farruggia M, Veronese N, Barbagallo M. Vitamin D Sources, Metabolism, and Deficiency: Available Compounds and Guidelines for Its Treatment. Metabolites. 2021; 11(4):255. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11040255

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dominguez, Ligia J., Mario Farruggia, Nicola Veronese, and Mario Barbagallo. 2021. "Vitamin D Sources, Metabolism, and Deficiency: Available Compounds and Guidelines for Its Treatment" Metabolites 11, no. 4: 255. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11040255

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