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Open AccessArticle

Total vs. Bioavailable: Determining a Better 25(OH)D Index in Association with Bone Density and Muscle Mass in Postmenopausal Women

1
School of Biosciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Lifestyle Science Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 13200 Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2021, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11010023
Received: 5 December 2020 / Revised: 18 December 2020 / Accepted: 19 December 2020 / Published: 31 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Bone Metabolism)
The concurrent presence of low bone density (osteopenia/osteoporosis) and low muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older adults has led to the recognition of “osteosarcopenia” (OS) as a singular entity. Vitamin D may play important role in the manifestation of OS, in terms of intake, absorption, and bioavailability. Evidence suggests that bioavailable 25(OH)D may be a better indicator of Vitamin D compared to total 25(OH)D due to its weak bind to albumin, increasing its ‘availability’. The aim of this study was to assess total and bioavailable 25(OH)D levels in postmenopausal women and to determine their associations to bone density and muscle mass. We assessed body composition, bone density, and 25(OH)D indices of multiethnic, postmenopausal Malaysian women. A significant and negative correlation was found between body fat % and each index of 25(OH)D. Both bioavailable and total 25(OH)D were positively correlated with serum calcium and negatively correlated with iPTH(intact parathyroid hormone). VDBP(Vitamin D binding protein) level was significantly correlated with bioavailable 25(OH)D level, but not with the total 25(OH)D level. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that bioavailable, but not total, 25(OH)D was significantly correlated to bone density and muscle mass, (where stronger correlation was found with bone density), suggesting its superiority. Nevertheless, the low effect size warrants further studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; osteoporosis; sarcopenia; vitamin D; osteosarcopenic obesity obesity; osteoporosis; sarcopenia; vitamin D; osteosarcopenic obesity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abidin, N.Z.; Mitra, S.R. Total vs. Bioavailable: Determining a Better 25(OH)D Index in Association with Bone Density and Muscle Mass in Postmenopausal Women. Metabolites 2021, 11, 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11010023

AMA Style

Abidin NZ, Mitra SR. Total vs. Bioavailable: Determining a Better 25(OH)D Index in Association with Bone Density and Muscle Mass in Postmenopausal Women. Metabolites. 2021; 11(1):23. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11010023

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abidin, Nurdiana Z.; Mitra, Soma R. 2021. "Total vs. Bioavailable: Determining a Better 25(OH)D Index in Association with Bone Density and Muscle Mass in Postmenopausal Women" Metabolites 11, no. 1: 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11010023

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