Special Issue "Bioactivities and Medical Use of Herbs and Plants"

A special issue of Medicines (ISSN 2305-6320).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2018) | Viewed by 37034

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In earlier times, higher plants were the primary source of medicines for human and veterinary use.  Even today, much of the world’s population depends on plants and plant extracts for health care.  Not only do plants continue to serve as important sources of new chemotherapeutic agents, secondary metabolites from plants are extremely useful as lead molecular scaffolds for synthetic modification and optimization of biological activity.

This Special Issue of Medicines focuses on biological activities of higher plants and traditional herbal medicines; phytochemistry, isolation, and structure elucidation of phytochemical agents from biologically active plants; and identification of new biochemical targets and mechanisms of activity.

This issue invites original research contributions, as well as review articles, related to biological activities of higher plants, isolation, identification, and synthetic modifications of phytochemicals.

We look forward to receiving your contributions to this Special Issue.

Prof. William N. Setzer
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • phytochemistry
  • bioactivity
  • traditional herbal medicine
  • pharmacognosy
  • phytotherapy

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
Efficacy of Four Solanum spp. Extracts in an Animal Model of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
Medicines 2018, 5(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5020049 - 05 Jun 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1768
Abstract
Background: Leishmaniasis is a complex protozoa disease caused by Leishmania genus (Trypanosomatidae family). Currently, there have been renewed interests worldwide in plants as pharmaceutical agents. In this study, the in vivo efficacy of Solanum spp. is assessed in an L. amazonensis BALB/c mice [...] Read more.
Background: Leishmaniasis is a complex protozoa disease caused by Leishmania genus (Trypanosomatidae family). Currently, there have been renewed interests worldwide in plants as pharmaceutical agents. In this study, the in vivo efficacy of Solanum spp. is assessed in an L. amazonensis BALB/c mice model for experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods: Animals were infected with 5 × 106 metacyclic promastigotes and 30-day post-infection, a treatment with 30 mg/kg of Solanum extracts or Glucantime® (GTM) was applied intralesionally every four days to complete 5 doses. Results: Neither death nor loss of weight higher than 10% was observed. All the tested extracts were able to control the infection, compared with the infected and untreated group. Solanum havanense Jacq. extract showed the highest efficacy and was superior (p < 0.05) to GTM. Solanum myriacanthum Dunal., S. nudum Dunal. and S. seaforthianum Andr. extracts demonstrated a similar effect (p > 0.05) to GTM. An increase of IFN-γ (p < 0.05) was displayed only by animals treated with S. nudum compared to the group treated with a vehicle, while no differences (p > 0.05) were observed for IL-12. Conclusions: In vivo effects of Solanum extracts were demonstrated, suggesting that this genus could be further explored as a new antileishmanial alternative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivities and Medical Use of Herbs and Plants)
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Article
Anti-Parasitic Activities of Allium sativum and Allium cepa against Trypanosoma b. brucei and Leishmania tarentolae
Medicines 2018, 5(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5020037 - 21 Apr 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3658
Abstract
Background: Garlics and onions have been used for the treatment of diseases caused by parasites and microbes since ancient times. Trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are a concern in many areas of the world, especially in poor countries. Methods: Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Leishmania tarentolae [...] Read more.
Background: Garlics and onions have been used for the treatment of diseases caused by parasites and microbes since ancient times. Trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are a concern in many areas of the world, especially in poor countries. Methods: Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Leishmania tarentolae were used to investigate the anti-parasitic effects of dichloromethane extracts of Allium sativum (garlic) and Allium cepa (onion) bulbs. As a confirmation of known antimicrobial activities, they were studied against a selection of G-negative, G-positive bacteria and two fungi. Chemical analyses were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Results: Chemical analyses confirmed the abundance of several sulfur secondary metabolites in garlic and one (zwiebelane) in the onion extract. Both extracts killed both types of parasites efficiently and inhibited the Trypanosoma brucei trypanothione reductase irreversibly. In addition, garlic extract decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in trypanosomes. Garlic killed the fungi C. albicans and C. parapsilosis more effectively than the positive control. The combinations of garlic and onion with common trypanocidal and leishmanicidal drugs resulted in a synergistic or additive effect in 50% of cases. Conclusion: The mechanism for biological activity of garlic and onion appears to be related to the amount and the profile of sulfur-containing compounds. It is most likely that vital substances inside the parasitic cell, like trypanothione reductase, are inhibited through disulfide bond formation between SH groups of vital redox compounds and sulfur-containing secondary metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivities and Medical Use of Herbs and Plants)
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Article
Beneficial Effect of Ocimum sanctum (Linn) against Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension in Rats
Medicines 2018, 5(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5020034 - 17 Apr 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2475
Abstract
Background: The study was designed to explore any beneficial effect of Ocimum sanctum (Linn) (OS) in experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH) in rats. OS is commonly known as “holy basil” and “Tulsi” and is used in the Indian System of Medicine as antidiabetic, antioxidant, [...] Read more.
Background: The study was designed to explore any beneficial effect of Ocimum sanctum (Linn) (OS) in experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH) in rats. OS is commonly known as “holy basil” and “Tulsi” and is used in the Indian System of Medicine as antidiabetic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, adaptogenic, and cardioprotective. Methods: Monocrotaline (MCT) administration caused development of PH in rats after 28 days and rats were observed for 42 days. Treatments (sildenafil; 175 µg/kg, OS; 200 mg/kg) were started from day 29 after the development of PH and continued for 14 days. Parameters to assess the disease development and effectiveness of interventions were echocardiography, right and left ventricular systolic pressures, and right ventricular end diastolic pressure, percentage medial wall thickness (%MWT) of pulmonary artery, oxidative stress markers in lung tissue, NADPH oxidase (Nox-1) protein expression in lung, and mRNA expression of Bcl2 and Bax in right ventricular tissue. Results: OS (200 mg/kg) treatment ameliorated increased lung weight to body weight ratio, right ventricular hypertrophy, increased RVSP, and RVoTD/AoD ratio. Moreover, OS treatment decreases Nox-1 expression and increases expression of Bcl2/Bax ratio caused by MCT. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that OS has therapeutic ability against MCT-induced PH in rat which are attributed to its antioxidant effect. The effect of OS was comparable with sildenafil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivities and Medical Use of Herbs and Plants)
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Article
Immunomodulatory and Antibacterial Properties of the Chumash Medicinal Plant Trichostema lanatum
Medicines 2018, 5(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5020025 - 21 Mar 2018
Viewed by 2355
Abstract
Background: The woody shrub Trichostema lanatum Benth. (Lamiaceae) is native to Southern California and was reportedly used by the Chumash people as a disinfectant and for the treatment of rheumatism. Based on its traditional uses, this study investigated the antibacterial and immunomodulatory properties [...] Read more.
Background: The woody shrub Trichostema lanatum Benth. (Lamiaceae) is native to Southern California and was reportedly used by the Chumash people as a disinfectant and for the treatment of rheumatism. Based on its traditional uses, this study investigated the antibacterial and immunomodulatory properties of extracts from T. lanatum. Methods: A methanolic extract of the leaves and stems of T. lanatum was tested for immunomodulatory activity by measuring the proliferation of murine macrophage cell cultures and the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α by the cells after treatment with T. lanatum. Antibacterial activity of the extract against a panel of six Gram-positive bacteria and two Gram-negative bacteria was evaluated using a disc-diffusion assay. Results: The T. lanatum extract inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, but not Gram-negative bacteria. Treatment of activated macrophage cell cultures with T. lanatum extract resulted in decreased proliferation of the activated macrophages and a decrease in the production of TNF-α. Conclusions: These results provide the first pharmacological support for the traditional use of T. lanatum by the Chumash people of Southern California as a disinfectant and treatment for rheumatism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivities and Medical Use of Herbs and Plants)
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Article
Estrogen and Thyroid Hormone Receptor Activation by Medicinal Plants from Bahia, Brazil
Medicines 2018, 5(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5010008 - 15 Jan 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2466
Abstract
Background: A number of medicinal plants are traditionally used for metabolic disorders in Bahia state, Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the estrogen receptor (ER) and thyroid receptor (TR) activation of crude extracts prepared from 20 plants. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: A number of medicinal plants are traditionally used for metabolic disorders in Bahia state, Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the estrogen receptor (ER) and thyroid receptor (TR) activation of crude extracts prepared from 20 plants. Methods: Species were extracted and assayed for receptor activation through both ER and TR gene-reporter assays, using 17β-estradiol and triiodothyronine (T3), respectively, as the positive controls. Results: Cajanus cajan (Fabaceae), Abarema cochliacarpus (Fabaceae), and Borreria verticillata (Rubiaceae) were able to activate ER as much as the positive control (17β-estradiol). These three plant species were also assayed for TR activation. At the concentration of 50 µg/mL, C. cajans exerted the highest positive modulation on TR, causing an activation of 59.9%, while B. verticillata and A. cochliacarpus caused 30.8% and 23.3%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results contribute towards the validation of the traditional use of C. cajans, B. verticillata, and A. cochliacarpus in the treatment of metabolic disorders related to ER and TR functions. The gene-reporter assay was proven effective in screening crude plant extracts for ER/TR activation, endorsing this methodology as an important tool for future bioprospection studies focused on identifying novel starting molecules for the development of estrogen and thyroid agonists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivities and Medical Use of Herbs and Plants)
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Article
Antimicrobial Activities of European Propolis Collected from Various Geographic Origins Alone and in Combination with Antibiotics
Medicines 2018, 5(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5010002 - 03 Jan 2018
Cited by 69 | Viewed by 4443
Abstract
Background: Propolis consists of a complex mixture of resinous substances collected by honeybees from different plant sources. The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical composition, biological activities, and synergistic properties with antibiotics of propolis samples collected from various geographic origins [...] Read more.
Background: Propolis consists of a complex mixture of resinous substances collected by honeybees from different plant sources. The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical composition, biological activities, and synergistic properties with antibiotics of propolis samples collected from various geographic origins (Germany, Ireland, and Czech Republic). Methods: The chemical composition of the propolis was analyzed by Gas Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GLC-MS) and High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were evaluated by the standard broth microdilution method, while synergistic interactions were assessed by checkerboard dilution and time-kill curve assays. Results: HPLC and GLC-MS analyses revealed that ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) and water extracts of propolis (WEP) contained more than 100 different phytochemicals. The most abundant compounds were aromatic alcohols, aromatic acids, cinnamic acid and its esters, fatty acids, and flavanone (chrysin). Czech propolis showed the highest phenolic content (129.83 ± 5.9 mg CAE/g) followed by Irish propolis and German propolis. Furthermore, Irish propolis exhibited the highest value of total flavonoid content (2.86 ± 0.2 mg QE/g) and antioxidant activity (IC50 = 26.45 µg/mL). All propolis samples showed moderate antibacterial effect against Gram-positive microorganisms with MIC ranging from 0.08 mg/mL to 2.5 mg/mL. Moreover, EEP exhibited moderate activity against Gram-negative bacteria with MIC between 0.6 mg/mL to 5 mg/mL. In addition, EEP displayed moderate antifungal activity (MIC values between 0.6–2.5 mg/mL). The results obtained from time kill-kinetic assay and checkerboard dilution test of two-drug combinations between EEP and antibiotics such as vancomycin, oxacillin, and levofloxacin indicate mainly synergistic interactions against drug-resistant microbial pathogens including MRSA and VRE. Conclusions: The propolis extract synergistically enhanced the efficacy of antibiotics, especially those acting on cell wall synthesis (vancomycin and oxacillin) against drug-resistant microorganisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivities and Medical Use of Herbs and Plants)
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Article
Antinociceptive Activity of Macaranga denticulata Muell. Arg. (Family: Euphorbiaceae): In Vivo and In Silico Studies
Medicines 2017, 4(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines4040088 - 01 Dec 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2852
Abstract
Background: The present study was conducted to investigate the antinociceptive activity of methanol extract of Macaranga denticulata (Met.MD) in an animal model, followed by molecular docking analysis. Methods: Antinociceptive activity was determined by acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced licking test in mice. Then, [...] Read more.
Background: The present study was conducted to investigate the antinociceptive activity of methanol extract of Macaranga denticulata (Met.MD) in an animal model, followed by molecular docking analysis. Methods: Antinociceptive activity was determined by acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced licking test in mice. Then, molecular docking study was performed to identify compounds having maximum activity against the COX-1 enzyme using Schrödinger Maestro (version 10.1) to determine docking fitness. Results: A preliminary phytochemical analysis of Met.MD revealed that it contained alkaloids, carbohydrates, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids. Met.MD exhibited a dose-dependent and statistically significant antinociceptive activity in the acetic acid and formalin test at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. In addition, our docking study showed that macarangin had the best fitness score of −5.81 with COX-1 enzyme among six major compounds of M. denticulata. Conclusions: Results of the present study confirmed the potential antinociceptive activity of M. denticulata leaf extract in both in vivo and in silico models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivities and Medical Use of Herbs and Plants)
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Article
Synergistic Effects of Danshen (Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma) and Sanqi (Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma) Combination in Angiogenesis Behavior in EAhy 926 Cells
Medicines 2017, 4(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines4040085 - 21 Nov 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2789
Abstract
Background: This study investigated the combination effects of the Danshen and Sanqi herb pair on angiogenesis in vitro. Methods: Nine combination ratios of Danshen-Sanqi extracts (DS-SQ) were screened for their angiogenic effects in the human vascular endothelial EAhy 926 cell line via cell [...] Read more.
Background: This study investigated the combination effects of the Danshen and Sanqi herb pair on angiogenesis in vitro. Methods: Nine combination ratios of Danshen-Sanqi extracts (DS-SQ) were screened for their angiogenic effects in the human vascular endothelial EAhy 926 cell line via cell proliferation, cell migration and tube formation activities against the damage to the cells exerted by DL-homocysteine (Hcy) and adenosine (Ado). The type of interaction (synergistic, antagonistic, additive) between Danshen and Sanqi was analyzed using combination index (CI) and isobologram models. The angiogenic activities of key bioactive compounds from Danshen and Sanqi were tested in the same models. Results: DS-SQ ratios of 2:8 and 3:7 (50–300 µg/mL) potentiated angiogenic synergistic effects (CI < 1) in all three assays. The observed wound healing effects of DS-SQ 2:8 was significantly attenuated by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases (PI3K), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) inhibitors which inferred the potential mechanistic pathways. Out of all the tested compounds, Notoginsenoside R1 from Sanqi exhibited the most potent bioactivity in cell proliferation assay. Conclusions: This study provides scientific evidence to support the traditional use of the Danshen-Sanqi combination for vascular disease, in particular through their synergistic interactions on previously unexamined angiogenic pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivities and Medical Use of Herbs and Plants)
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Review

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Review
Evaluation of the Pharmaceutical Properties and Value of Astragali Radix
Medicines 2018, 5(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5020046 - 21 May 2018
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 2919
Abstract
Astragali Radix (AR), a Chinese materia medica (CMM) known as Huangqi, is an important medicine prescribed in herbal composite formulae (Fufang) by Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners for thousands of years. According to the literature, AR is suggested for patients suffering from “Qi”- [...] Read more.
Astragali Radix (AR), a Chinese materia medica (CMM) known as Huangqi, is an important medicine prescribed in herbal composite formulae (Fufang) by Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners for thousands of years. According to the literature, AR is suggested for patients suffering from “Qi”- and “Blood”-deficiencies, and its clinical effects are reported to be related to anti-cancer cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, relief of complications in cardiovascular diseases, etc. The underlying cell signaling pathways involved in the regulation of these various diseases are presented here to support the mechanisms of action of AR. There are two botanical sources recorded in China Pharmacopoeia (CP, 2015): Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. Var. mongohlicus, (Bge.) Hsiao, and Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. (Fam. Leguminosae), whose extracts of dried roots are processed via homogenization-assisted negative pressure cavitation extraction. Geographic factors and extraction methods have impacts on the pharmaceutical and chemical profiles of AR. Therefore, the levels of the major bioactive constituents of AR, including polysaccharides, saponins, and flavonoids, may not be consistent in different batches of extract, and the pharmaceutical efficacy of these bioactive ingredients may vary depending on the source. Therefore, the present review mainly focuses on the consistency of the available sources of AR and extracts and on the investigation of the biological functions and mechanisms of action of AR and of its major bioactive constituents. Furthermore, it will also include a discussion of the most popular AR composite formulae to further elucidate their chemical and biological profiles and understand the pharmaceutical value of AR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivities and Medical Use of Herbs and Plants)
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Review
Use of Plant and Herb Derived Medicine for Therapeutic Usage in Cardiology
Medicines 2018, 5(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5020038 - 22 Apr 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2593
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have become prominent in mortality and morbidity rates. Prevalent cardiovascular conditions, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and oxidative stress, are increasing at an alarming rate. Conventional drugs have been associated with adverse effects, suggesting a need for an alternative measure to [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have become prominent in mortality and morbidity rates. Prevalent cardiovascular conditions, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and oxidative stress, are increasing at an alarming rate. Conventional drugs have been associated with adverse effects, suggesting a need for an alternative measure to ameliorate CVD. A number of plant- and herb-derived preventative food and therapeutic drugs for cardiovascular conditions are progressively used for their various benefits. Naturally derived food and drugs have fewer side effects because they come from natural elements; preventative food, such as grape seed, inhibits changes of histopathology and biomarkers in vital organs whereas therapeutic drugs, for instance Xanthone, improve heart functions by suppressing oxidative stress of myocyte. This review closely examines the various plant- and herb-derived drugs that have assumed an essential role in treating inflammation and oxidative stress for prevalent cardiovascular conditions. Furthermore, the use of plant-derived medicine with other synthetic particles, such as nanoparticles, for targeted therapy is investigated for its effective clinical use in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivities and Medical Use of Herbs and Plants)
Review
A Review of Evidence for a Therapeutic Application of Traditional Japanese Kampo Medicine for Oral Diseases/Disorders
Medicines 2018, 5(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5020035 - 18 Apr 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2337
Abstract
Kampo medicines prescribed by specialized medical practitioners and Japanese physicians have gradually reemerged in Japan as alternatives to Western medications. Kampo formulations are composed of several plant extracts and, as such, the broad variety of phytochemicals they contain likely act synergistically to provide [...] Read more.
Kampo medicines prescribed by specialized medical practitioners and Japanese physicians have gradually reemerged in Japan as alternatives to Western medications. Kampo formulations are composed of several plant extracts and, as such, the broad variety of phytochemicals they contain likely act synergistically to provide their beneficial effects. Kampo medicines have traditionally been prescribed for a number of health conditions, including chronic hepatitis, bronchial asthma, anemia, etc. The aim of this article is to review the beneficial effects of Kampos with respect to oral health. Pertinent papers published between 1970 and 2017 were retrieved by searching in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Scopus using key words followed by evaluation of the relevant articles. In vitro studies have identified a number of properties that give credence to the potential of Kampos for treating or preventing oral diseases/disorders. Given their anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties, they may be promising agents for controlling periodontal diseases, oral mucositis, xerostomia, and drug-induced gingival overgrowth. Since some oral diseases have a complex etiology that involves microbial pathogens and the host immune response, agents with dual functionality such as Kampo phytochemicals may offer a therapeutic advantage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivities and Medical Use of Herbs and Plants)
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Review
Dental Application of Natural Products
Medicines 2018, 5(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5010021 - 14 Feb 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2573
Abstract
This review article summarizes the recent progress in dental applications of natural products. Catechin gel showed selective antimicrobial activity, whereas the alkaline extract of various plant species rich in lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) showed much higher antiviral activity than lower molecular weight polyphenols. [...] Read more.
This review article summarizes the recent progress in dental applications of natural products. Catechin gel showed selective antimicrobial activity, whereas the alkaline extract of various plant species rich in lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) showed much higher antiviral activity than lower molecular weight polyphenols. Mouthwash with the alkaline extract of a plant classified as OTC effectively reduced halitosis. Unexpectedly, many polyphenolic compounds purified from the natural kingdom showed much lower tumor-specificity against human oral squamous cell lines as compared with antitumor agents, although they showed apoptosis-inducing activity. The alkaline extract of bamboo leaf, which exerted various common biological activities with LCC, showed osteogenic activity by stimulating differentiation toward osteoblasts while inhibiting differentiation toward osteoclasts. LCC enhanced the dectin-2 mRNA expression in macrophages, whereas glucan showed anti-osteoblastic action via dectin-1. These data suggest that natural products exert their biological activity by interacting with these molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivities and Medical Use of Herbs and Plants)
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Review
Systematic Overview of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. Dominant Poly-Herbal Formulas in Children and Adolescents
Medicines 2017, 4(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines4040086 - 22 Nov 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3302
Abstract
Background: The Ayurvedic medicinal system employs a holistic approach to health, utilising the synergistic properties of organic resources. Research into the Ayurvedic herb Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (B.monnieri) has reported improvements in cognitive outcomes in child and adult populations. The aim of current [...] Read more.
Background: The Ayurvedic medicinal system employs a holistic approach to health, utilising the synergistic properties of organic resources. Research into the Ayurvedic herb Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (B.monnieri) has reported improvements in cognitive outcomes in child and adult populations. The aim of current review is to systematically assess and critically summarize clinical trials investigating B.monnieri-dominant poly-herbal formulas and their effects on the cognition, memory, learning, and behaviour in children and adolescents. Methods: Key word searches were performed using PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, DHARA, and CINAHL for publications meeting inclusion criteria up to November 2017. There were no restrictions in study design. Effect sizes were calculated for all significant findings to allow for direct comparisons, and each study was evaluated on design quality. Cognitive and behavioural outcomes were grouped into validated constructs for cross-study comparison. Results: Nine trials met inclusion criteria. Five studies reported sufficient data for effect size analysis with most improvements reported in behavioural outcomes. True cognitive abilities and behavioural constructs were reviewed in six studies, with visual perception, impulsivity, and attention demonstrating the greatest improvements. The veracity of the evidence for the formulations reviewed is weakened by inconsistent statistical design and under-reporting of safety and tolerability data (44%). Conclusions: The current review extends research supporting B.monnieri as a cognitive enhancer and provides modest evidence for the use of B.monnieri in poly-herbal preparations for improving cognitive and behavioural outcomes in child and adolescent populations. Greater emphasis on statistical vigour and the reporting of tolerability data are essential for future trials to adequately document poly-herbal treatment efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivities and Medical Use of Herbs and Plants)
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