Special Issue "Emergency Medicine and Emergency Room Medical Issues"

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1648-9144). This special issue belongs to the section "Emergency Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 August 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hospitals or healthcare institutions are at risk of being overburdened, physicians are at risk of burnout, emergency departments are clogged up. All previous items are hot topics in the area of emergency medicine; yet, together with several systems to counteract the overbooking of emergency rooms in order to improve hospital discharge (e.g., telemedicine, improvements for access to care for primary care and specialty services), a professional update remains the best resource for physicians, in particular, the ability to manage diagnostic suspects for rare diseases with the chance of early diagnosis and treatment.

For this reason, the daily clinical management of emergency medicine and emergency rooms recognizes great educational merit not only in case series but also in case reports.

We invite colleagues around the world to report their clinical experience with case series or case reports in emergency medicine and/or emergency rooms for this collection of our journal in order to give support to this fundamental area of the daily life of hospital workers.

Clinical contributions regarding acute illnesses, such as infections, thrombosis, bleeding, inflammation, autoimmune diseases, trauma and any type of emergency diagnostic rare procedure, are welcome for this collection.

Dr. Pierpaolo Di Micco
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • emergency room
  • lung failure
  • case reports
  • bleeding
  • COVID-19
  • thrombosis
  • acute rheumatic diseases
  • infection
  • antibiotics
  • anticoagulation
  • arrhythmia
  • antiaggregation

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
Association of ABO Blood Type with Bleeding Severity in Patients with Acute Gastroesophageal Variceal Bleeding
Medicina 2021, 57(12), 1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57121323 - 03 Dec 2021
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Background and Objectives: ABO blood types have been implicated as potential risk factors for various hemorrhagic diseases. No study has investigated the association between gastroesophageal variceal bleeding and ABO blood types. We aimed to evaluate the impact of ABO blood types on [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: ABO blood types have been implicated as potential risk factors for various hemorrhagic diseases. No study has investigated the association between gastroesophageal variceal bleeding and ABO blood types. We aimed to evaluate the impact of ABO blood types on mortality and bleeding risk in acute gastroesophageal variceal bleeding. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective observational study. Patients presenting with acute gastroesophageal varices bleeding diagnosed by endoscopy were enrolled, and were divided by blood type into a type O group and non-type O group. The outcomes were death within 30 days and the proportion of further bleeding. We used generalized linear mixed-effects models to analyze the outcomes. Results: A total of 327 patients and 648 records of emergency room visits were included. The 30-day mortality was 14.8% (21 of 142 patients) in the type O group, and 16.2% (30 of 185 patients) in the non-type O group (p = 0.532). Further bleeding within 30 days occurred in 34 cases (12.6%) in the type O group, and in 26 cases (6.9%) in the non-type O group (p = 0.539). Conclusions: There was no significant difference in blood transfusion volume in 24 h, recurrent bleeding rates, or mortality between patients with blood type O and those with non-type O. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergency Medicine and Emergency Room Medical Issues)
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Article
Impact of Personal Protective Equipment on Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Resuscitation in Coronavirus Pandemic
Medicina 2021, 57(12), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57121291 - 24 Nov 2021
Viewed by 393
Abstract
Background and Objectives: This retrospective study evaluated the clinical impact of enhanced personal protective equipment (PPE) on the clinical outcomes in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Moreover, by focusing on the use of a powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR), we investigated the medical [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: This retrospective study evaluated the clinical impact of enhanced personal protective equipment (PPE) on the clinical outcomes in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Moreover, by focusing on the use of a powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR), we investigated the medical personnel’s perceptions of wearing PAPR during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Materials and Methods: According to the arrival time at the emergency department, the patients were categorized into a conventional PPE group (1 August 2019 to 20 January 2020) and an enhanced PPE group (21 January 2020, to 31 August 2020). The primary outcomes of this analysis were the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) rate. Additionally, subjective perception of the medical staff regarding the effect of wearing enhanced PPE during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was evaluated by conducting a survey. Results: This study included 130 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients, with 73 and 57 patients in the conventional and enhanced PPE groups, respectively. The median time intervals to first intubation and to report the first arterial blood gas analysis results were longer in the enhanced PPE group than in the conventional PPE group (3 min vs. 2 min; p = 0.020 and 8 min vs. 3 min; p < 0.001, respectively). However, there were no significant differences in the ROSC rate (odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38–1.67; p = 0.542) and 1 month survival (OR 0.38, 95% CI: 0.07–2.10; p = 0.266) between the two groups. In total, 67 emergent department (ED) professionals responded to the questionnaire. Although a significant number of respondents experienced inconveniences with PAPR use, they agreed that PAPR was necessary during the CPR procedure for protection and reduction of infection transmission. Conclusion: The use of enhanced PPE, including PAPR, affected the performance of CPR to some extent but did not alter patient outcomes. PAPR use during the resuscitation of OHCA patients might positively impact the psychological stability of the medical staff. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergency Medicine and Emergency Room Medical Issues)
Article
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Emergency Department Workload and Emergency Care Workers’ Psychosocial Stress in the Outbreak Area
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57111274 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 448
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Due to the unexpected spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there was a serious crisis of emergency medical system collapse. Healthcare workers working in the emergency department were faced with psychosocial stress and workload changes. Materials and Methods: This [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Due to the unexpected spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there was a serious crisis of emergency medical system collapse. Healthcare workers working in the emergency department were faced with psychosocial stress and workload changes. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of healthcare workers in the emergency department in Daegu and Gyeongbuk, Korea, from November 16 to 25, 2020. In the survey, we assessed the general characteristics of the respondents; changes in the working conditions before and after the COVID-19 pandemic; and resulting post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety statuses using 49 questions. Results: A total of 529 responses were collected, and 520 responses were included for the final analyses. Changes in working conditions and other factors due to COVID-19 varied by emergency department level, region and disease group. Working hours, intensity, role changes, depression and anxiety scores were higher in the higher level emergency department. Isolation ward insufficiency and the risk of infection felt by healthcare workers tended to increase in the lower level emergency department. Treatment and transfer delay were higher in the fever and respiratory disease groups (M = 3.58, SD = 1.18; M = 4.08, SD = 0.95), respectively. In all the disease groups, both treatment and transfer were delayed more in Gyeongbuk than in Daegu. Conclusions: Different goals should be pursued by the levels and region of the emergency department to overcome the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and promote optimal care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergency Medicine and Emergency Room Medical Issues)
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Article
Comparison of the Clinical Process and Outcomes in Patients after Coronavirus Infection 2019 Outbreak
Medicina 2021, 57(10), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57101086 - 11 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 344
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The coronavirus infection 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected emergency department (ED) management. Its viral transmission necessitates the use of isolation rooms and personal protective equipment for treating suspected patients, such as those with fever. This delays the time until [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The coronavirus infection 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected emergency department (ED) management. Its viral transmission necessitates the use of isolation rooms and personal protective equipment for treating suspected patients, such as those with fever. This delays the time until the first encounter with the patients, thereby increasing the length of stay (LOS) in the ED. We aimed to compare delays in the ED LOS and clinical processes between the COVID-19 period and pre-COVID-19 period. Moreover, we intended to evaluate if the aforementioned delay affected patient outcomes. Materials and Methods: We conducted a single-center, retrospective study in Korea. Patients with fever were compared between the “COVID-19 period” from March 2020 to August 2020 and the “pre-COVID-19 period” from March 2019 to September 2019. We compared the overall ED LOS and individual time variable, including initial diagnostic tests (laboratory tests, radiography), specific diagnostic test (computed tomography), and treatment processes (antibiotics). A logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the association between hospital admission and patient data. Results: We enrolled 931 and 749 patients during pre- and COVID-19 periods, respectively. Patients with fever remained in the ED for a longer duration during the COVID-19 period (pre-COVID-19:207.7 ± 102.7 min vs. during COVID-19: 223.5 ± 119.4 min, p = 0.004). The total time for performing laboratory tests and radiography displayed significant differences between the two periods, particularly from the time of patient arrival in the ED to the time of issuing the order. The time until antibiotic administration was delayed in the COVID-19 period (pre-COVID-19:195.8 ± 103.3 min vs. during COVID-19: 216.9 ± 108.4 min, p = 0.003). The logistic regression analysis for hospital admission identified ED LOS as an independent factor in both periods. Conclusions: The delay until encountering patients with fever resulted in longer ED LOS during the COVID-19 period; however, it possibly did not increase the hospital admission rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergency Medicine and Emergency Room Medical Issues)
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Article
Necessity of Immediate MRI Imaging in the Acute Care of Severely Injured Patients
Medicina 2021, 57(9), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57090982 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The standard diagnostic procedure for a patient with a suspected polytrauma injury is computed tomography (CT). In individual cases, however, extended acute imaging using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide valuable and therapy-relevant information. The aim of our cohort [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The standard diagnostic procedure for a patient with a suspected polytrauma injury is computed tomography (CT). In individual cases, however, extended acute imaging using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide valuable and therapy-relevant information. The aim of our cohort study was to find such cases and to describe their characteristics in order to be able to give possible recommendations for MRI application in acute trauma situations. Materials and Methods: In the study period from 2015–2019, an evaluation of the imaging performed on polytrauma patients was carried out. The specific diagnostic and therapeutic criteria of the MRI group were further defined. Results: In total, 580 patients with an ISS ≥16 (injury severity score) were included in the study. Of these 580 patients, 568 patients received a CT scan and 12 patients an MRI scan as part of the initial diagnostic. Altogether, 66.67% of the MRIs took place outside of regular service hours. The main findings for MRI indications were neurological abnormalities with a focus on myelon injuries. Further MRI examinations were performed to rule out vascular injuries. All in all, 58.3% of the MRIs performed resulted in modified therapeutic strategies afterward. Conclusions: MRI in the context of acute diagnostic of a severely injured patient will likely remain reserved for special indications in the future. However, maximum care hospitals with a high flow of severely injured patients should provide 24/7 MR imaging to ensure the best possible care, especially in neurological and blunt vascular injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergency Medicine and Emergency Room Medical Issues)
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Article
Features of Patients Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Relative to Cardiogenic Shock Onset: A Single-Centre Experience
Medicina 2021, 57(9), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57090886 - 27 Aug 2021
Viewed by 389
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be helpful in patients with cardiogenic shock associated with myocardial infarction, and its early use can improve the patient survival rate. In this study, we report a mortality rate-difference analysis that examined the time and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be helpful in patients with cardiogenic shock associated with myocardial infarction, and its early use can improve the patient survival rate. In this study, we report a mortality rate-difference analysis that examined the time and location of shock occurrence. Materials and Methods: We enrolled patients who underwent ECMO due to cardiogenic shock related to myocardial infarction and assigned them to either a pre- or post-admission shock group. The primary outcome was the 1-month mortality rate; a subgroup analysis was conducted to assess the effect of bailout ECMO. Results: Of the 113 patients enrolled, 67 (38 with pre-admission shock, 29 with post-admission shock) were analysed. Asystole was more frequently detected in the pre-admission shock group than in the post-admission group. In both groups, the commonest culprit lesion location was in the left anterior descending artery. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed significantly more frequently and earlier in the pre-admission group. The 1-month mortality rate was significantly lower in the pre-admission group than in the post-admission group. Male sex and ECMO duration (≥6 days) were factors significantly related to the reduced mortality rate in the pre-admission group. In the subgroup analysis, the mortality rate was lower in patients receiving bailout ECMO than in those not receiving it; the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: ECMO application resulted in lower short-term mortality rate among patients with out-of-hospital cardiogenic shock onset than with in-hospital shock onset; early cardiopulmonary resuscitation and ECMO might be helpful in select patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergency Medicine and Emergency Room Medical Issues)
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Article
The Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Deletion/Deletion Genotype Is a Risk Factor for Severe COVID-19: Implication and Utility for Patients Admitted to Emergency Department
Medicina 2021, 57(8), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57080844 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Background and objective: Insertion/deletion polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) have been previously described in association with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and correlated to outcome. The ACE deletion/deletion(D/D)genotype represents a marker of thrombosis in subjects apparently without predisposing factors and/or traditional thrombophilic [...] Read more.
Background and objective: Insertion/deletion polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) have been previously described in association with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and correlated to outcome. The ACE deletion/deletion(D/D)genotype represents a marker of thrombosis in subjects apparently without predisposing factors and/or traditional thrombophilic alterations and increases the risk of venous thromboembolism in subjects in whom a thrombogenic condition occurs. Thrombosis seems to play a role very early in the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, in particular in those with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. The counterbalance between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 activities in COVID-19 disease may play a crucial role in the thrombo-inflammatory process. We hypothesised that a genetic predisposition could condition the severity and complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Materials and methods: We conducted a spontaneous, single centre observational study in the Sub-Intensive Care Unit of A.O.R.N. Ospedali dei Colli, Cotugno Hospital, Naples (Italy). In this study, we performed genetic screening for ACE D/D genotype and other thrombophilic mutations in 20 patients affected by ARDS related to COVID-19 pneumonia, compared to 19 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results: All tested patients had multiple polymorphisms and, in particular, a significantly higher prevalence of ACE D/D polymorphism in severe COVID-19 patients Conclusion: We found that the majority of patients who tested positive for ACE D-D genotype and who were not associated with other risk factors for VTE showed an evolution to ARDS. This finding could have a predicting role in the selection of patients more prone to developing severe COVID-19 during clinical observation in emergency department. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergency Medicine and Emergency Room Medical Issues)

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Case Report
Bacterial Pericarditis Caused by Penetration of a Migrated Biliary Stent from the Lateral Segment of the Liver: A Case Report
Medicina 2022, 58(1), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58010132 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 79
Abstract
Endoscopic biliary stent insertion is a well-established procedure that is indispensable in the management of various benign and malignant biliary disorders, and one that helps prevent mortality related to invasive surgical procedures. We report a rare case of the distal migration of a [...] Read more.
Endoscopic biliary stent insertion is a well-established procedure that is indispensable in the management of various benign and malignant biliary disorders, and one that helps prevent mortality related to invasive surgical procedures. We report a rare case of the distal migration of a biliary stent outside the abdomen to the pericardium, inducing constrictive pericarditis and septic shock. This case alerts clinicians to be aware of potential adverse events that can lead to unfavorable patient outcomes. Such adverse events can be effectively avoided through early detection and intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergency Medicine and Emergency Room Medical Issues)
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Case Report
A Rare Evolution to Pneumopericardium in Patient with COVID-19 Pneumonia Treated with High Flow Nasal Cannula
Medicina 2021, 57(10), 1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57101122 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which was revealed an official pandemic by the World Health Organization on 11 March 2020. The current pandemic, the third of this decade, is the worst in terms of suffering [...] Read more.
Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which was revealed an official pandemic by the World Health Organization on 11 March 2020. The current pandemic, the third of this decade, is the worst in terms of suffering and deaths related. COVID-19 represents an unprecedented challenge for medical communities and patients around the world. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest (HRCT) is a fundamental tool in both management and diagnosis of the disease. Imaging plays an essential role in the diagnosis of all the manifestations of the disease and its complications and the correct use and interpretation of imaging tests are essential. Pneumomediastinum has been reported rarely in COVID-19 patients. We were one of the first groups to share our experiences in uncommon parenchymal complications of COVID-19 with spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum, but also with new-onset bronchiectasis and cysts. A finding of pneumopericardium is also unusual. We hereby report a rare case of spontaneous pneumopericardium in a patient with COVID-19 pneumonia treated only with a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergency Medicine and Emergency Room Medical Issues)
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Case Report
Possible Adrenal Involvement in Long COVID Syndrome
Medicina 2021, 57(10), 1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57101087 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1010
Abstract
Background: A significant number of patients with COVID-19 experience prolonged symptoms, known as Long COVID. The most frequent symptoms are fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. We describe a patient suffering from Long COVID in whom adrenal involvement was highlighted. Methods: The patient [...] Read more.
Background: A significant number of patients with COVID-19 experience prolonged symptoms, known as Long COVID. The most frequent symptoms are fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. We describe a patient suffering from Long COVID in whom adrenal involvement was highlighted. Methods: The patient described Long COVID symptoms that persist 3 months after the negativization of the molecular swab test. The main symptoms were weakness, brain fog, dizziness, and muscular and joint pain. All routine lab panels for inflammation, anemia, and thyroid and liver function were conducted. Moreover, salivary cortisol and DHEA-S determinations were used to compute the adrenal stress index (ASI). Results: All tests were negative, except the ASI that showed very low levels of free cortisol. The patient started hydrocortisone acetate supplementation. Conclusion: Long COVID symptoms could be explained by an adrenal involvement, due to a COVID-19 action on adrenal glands and by a iatrogenic side effect of high glucocorticoid therapy during the COVID-19 infection. Salivary cortisol determination is effective for establishing a correct recovery plan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergency Medicine and Emergency Room Medical Issues)
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Brief Report
Pathophysiology of Vaccine-Induced Prothrombotic Immune Thrombocytopenia (VIPIT) and Vaccine-Induced Thrombocytopenic Thrombosis (VITT) and Their Diagnostic Approach in Emergency
Medicina 2021, 57(10), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57100997 - 22 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 induced a pandemic that is reported to have started in Asia and was then extended to other countries in the world. Main clinical aspects of this viral infection have been lung injuries with severe pneumonia requiring prolonged hospitalization and associated morbidities such [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2 induced a pandemic that is reported to have started in Asia and was then extended to other countries in the world. Main clinical aspects of this viral infection have been lung injuries with severe pneumonia requiring prolonged hospitalization and associated morbidities such as venous thromboembolism and/or superinfection by bacteria, fungus or other pests. Immediately there was a need to develop a sustainable therapeutic strategy, such as vaccination. Vaccines against Covid-19, in fact, exert a protective action for common people and reduce viral diffusion. Yet, vaccination of a large number of people raises the question of a well-known complication of several types of vaccines; this complication is immune thrombocytopenia, which is sometimes associated with thrombosis as well. In this short review, we summarized mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of vaccine-induced prothrombotic immune thrombocytopenia and vaccine-induced thrombocytopenic thrombosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergency Medicine and Emergency Room Medical Issues)
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Brief Report
Pneumomediastinum and Pneumothorax as Relevant Complications of Sub-Intensive Care of Patients with COVID-19: Description of a Case Series
Medicina 2021, 57(9), 919; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57090919 - 01 Sep 2021
Viewed by 888
Abstract
Lung failure has been the most common cause of hospitalization for COVID-19. Yet, bilateral interstitial pneumonia has not been the only cause of lung failure of these inpatients, and frequently they develop other illnesses associated with COVID-19. Pulmonary embolism has been the most [...] Read more.
Lung failure has been the most common cause of hospitalization for COVID-19. Yet, bilateral interstitial pneumonia has not been the only cause of lung failure of these inpatients, and frequently they develop other illnesses associated with COVID-19. Pulmonary embolism has been the most looked for in the world, but rarely other pneumological diseases, such as pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum, have been described and associated with a worsening prognosis. We here report our clinical experience associated with the occurrence of pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum in a cohort of inpatients hospitalized in our division of medicine in a regular ward or in a sub-intensive ward. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergency Medicine and Emergency Room Medical Issues)
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Case Report
Tension Hemothorax in Aortic Rupture: A Case Report
Medicina 2021, 57(8), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57080790 - 31 Jul 2021
Viewed by 518
Abstract
Background: The standard ATLS protocol calls for chest drain insertion in patients with hemothorax before performing further diagnostic steps. However, if trauma-induced thoracic aortic rupture is the underlying cause, such drainage can lead to massive bleeding and death of the patient. Case report: [...] Read more.
Background: The standard ATLS protocol calls for chest drain insertion in patients with hemothorax before performing further diagnostic steps. However, if trauma-induced thoracic aortic rupture is the underlying cause, such drainage can lead to massive bleeding and death of the patient. Case report: This report describes a case of a polytrauma patient (car accident), aged 21, with symmetrical chest and decreased breath sounds dorsally on the left. An urgent CT scan revealed subadventitial Grade III thoracic aortic transection with mediastinal hematoma, a massive left-sided hemothorax with mediastinal shift to the right, and other injuries. Stent-graft implantation with subsequent left hemithorax drainage was urgently performed, during which the patient became increasingly unstable from the circulatory point of view. This traumatic hemorrhagic shock was successfully managed at the ICU. Conclusion: Although hemothorax is a serious condition requiring rapid treatment, the knowledge of its origin is of utmost importance; performing chest drainage without bleeding control can lead to circulatory instability and death of the patient. Hence, where aortic injury can be suspected based on the mechanism of the injury, it is beneficial to perform spiral CT angiography for accurate diagnosis first and, in cases of aortic injury, to control the bleeding prior to drainage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergency Medicine and Emergency Room Medical Issues)
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