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Special Issue "Sintering and Processing of Metallic Materials: Experiments and Simulation"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 October 2022 | Viewed by 4507

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Juan Manuel Montes Martos
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universidad de Sevilla, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería, 41092 Sevilla, Spain
Interests: nanostructured materials; amorphous metals; powder metallurgy; mechanical alloying; electrical consolidation techniques; magnetic properties; hard metals; modeling and simulation
Dr. Fátima Ternero Fernández
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de Sevilla, 41092 Sevilla, Spain
Interests: nano-materials; nanostructured materials; amorphous metals; powder metallurgy; mechanical alloying; electrical consolidation techniques

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

The market share of sintered metallic materials is constantly increasing and is a permanent stimulus for the development of new materials and new technologies. From the beginning, powder metallurgy was used to produce materials that could not be produced otherwise. However, the obvious advantages of the method have meant that today many applications make use of powder metallurgy, for very different purposes. What makes this technique so attractive is the possibility to control the composition of the starting powders, altering their size, morphology, and internal structure (in micro or nanoscale), which allows some control of the properties of the final products. The forming and sintering process, carried out in several stages or all at once, normally requires the concurrence of pressure and temperature, but more recently it can also include other factors such as electric and magnetic fields, microwave, or laser light. The ultimate goal is usually to obtain fully dense materials with a net shape or near-net shape.

Naturally, these manufacturing and processing routes are becoming increasingly complex. The modeling and simulation of these processes offer virtual tools to assist in the development and optimization of the process, and reduce the cost of experimental testing and material waste.

In this Special Issue, we welcome papers that focus on the forming and sintering methods of metallic powders, with an emphasis on the simulation of such processes. Traditional routes are included, but also the most recent techniques, aimed at producing high-performance products.

Prof. Dr. Juan Manuel Montes Martos
Dr. Fátima Ternero Fernández
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • powder metallurgy
  • sintering
  • consolidation techniques
  • assisted sintering techniques
  • modeling and simulation

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
TiCoCrFeMn (BCC + C14) High-Entropy Alloy Multiphase Structure Analysis Based on the Theory of Molecular Orbitals
Materials 2021, 14(18), 5285; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185285 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 734
Abstract
High-entropy alloys (HEA) are a group of modern, perspective materials that have been intensively developed in recent years due to their superior properties and potential applications in many fields. The complexity of their chemical composition and the further interactions of main elements significantly [...] Read more.
High-entropy alloys (HEA) are a group of modern, perspective materials that have been intensively developed in recent years due to their superior properties and potential applications in many fields. The complexity of their chemical composition and the further interactions of main elements significantly inhibit the prediction of phases that may form during material processing. Thus, at the design stage of HEA fabrication, the molecular orbitals theory was proposed. In this method, the connection of the average strength of covalent bonding between the alloying elements (Bo parameter) and the average energy level of the d-orbital (parameter Md) enables for a preliminary assessment of the phase structure and the type of lattice for individual components in the formed alloy. The designed TiCoCrFeMn alloy was produced by the powder metallurgy method, preceded by mechanical alloying of the initial elementary powders and at the temperature of 1050 °C for 60 s. An ultra-fine-grained structured alloy was homogenized at 1000 °C for 1000 h. The X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis confirmed the correctness of the methodology proposed as the assumed phase structure consisted of the body-centered cubic (BCC) solid solution and the C14 Laves phase was obtained. Full article
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Article
Correlations of Geometry and Infill Degree of Extrusion Additively Manufactured 316L Stainless Steel Components
Materials 2021, 14(18), 5173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185173 - 09 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 711
Abstract
This study focuses on the effect of part geometry and infill degrees on effective mechanical properties of extrusion additively manufactured stainless steel 316L parts produced with BASF’s Ultrafuse 316LX filament. Knowledge about correlations between infill degrees, mechanical properties and dimensional deviations are essential [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the effect of part geometry and infill degrees on effective mechanical properties of extrusion additively manufactured stainless steel 316L parts produced with BASF’s Ultrafuse 316LX filament. Knowledge about correlations between infill degrees, mechanical properties and dimensional deviations are essential to enhance the part performance and further establish efficient methods for the product development for lightweight metal engineering applications. To investigate the effective Young’s modulus, yield strength and bending stress, standard testing methods for tensile testing and bending testing were used. For evaluating the dimensional accuracy, the tensile and bending specimens were measured before and after sintering to analyze anisotropic shrinkage effects and dimensional deviations linked to the infill structure. The results showed that dimensions larger than 10 mm have minor geometrical deviations and that the effective Young’s modulus varied in the range of 176%. These findings provide a more profound understanding of the process and its capabilities and enhance the product development process for metal extrusion-based additive manufacturing. Full article
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Article
Effect of TiO2 on the Sintering Behavior of Low-Grade Vanadiferous Titanomagnetite Ore
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4376; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164376 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 588
Abstract
Low-grade vanadiferous titanomagnetite ore (LVTM) is as an important mineral resource for sintering ore manufacturing. Furthermore, TiO2 has a significant effect on the sintering process of iron ore fines. The effects of TiO2 on the metallurgical properties, microstructure, and mineral composition [...] Read more.
Low-grade vanadiferous titanomagnetite ore (LVTM) is as an important mineral resource for sintering ore manufacturing. Furthermore, TiO2 has a significant effect on the sintering process of iron ore fines. The effects of TiO2 on the metallurgical properties, microstructure, and mineral composition of LVTM sinter were investigated by sintering pot tests, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and mineral phase microanalysis. The results were as follows: as the TiO2 content increased from 1.75% to 4.55%, the flame front speed and productivity decreased, while the reduction degradation index (RDI) and softening properties deteriorated. In addition, the tumbler index (TI) values reached a maximum at TiO2 = 1.75%. In addition, with increasing TiO2 content, an increase in the magnetite and perovskite phase, and a decrease in calcium ferrite and hematite were found with an increase in TiO2 content. Thus, the lower the TiO2 content, the better the quality of the sinter. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Wear Behaviour in Metallic Binders Employed in Diamond Tools for Cutting Stone
Materials 2021, 14(14), 3988; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14143988 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 771
Abstract
A type of disc-on-plate test methodology was used to determine the wear behavior of metallic binders employed in the manufacturing of diamond impregnated tools. The disc consists of a special circular wheel that allows the binder materials alone (i.e., without diamond, but sintered [...] Read more.
A type of disc-on-plate test methodology was used to determine the wear behavior of metallic binders employed in the manufacturing of diamond impregnated tools. The disc consists of a special circular wheel that allows the binder materials alone (i.e., without diamond, but sintered under conditions identical to those of the complete tool) to be tested against a plate of stone material under pre-determined testing conditions. The testing conditions are intended to be equivalent to those used in the industrial processes. Using plates of five types of granite and one type of marble, this work comprises wear tests of 15 different types of metallic binders and two sintering modes conducted under, at least, three different values of contact-force. The analysis of the results demonstrated that the wear of the binders can be related to their mechanical properties through an empirical expression. The larger the difference between the characteristics of the tribological pair (binder versus stone), the higher is the correlation between the experimental wear data and the values given by the empirical expression. The relationships presented in this work allow predicting the wear behavior of the binder, and therefore may help in the design process of diamond tools. There was a clear difference between the wear behavior of metallic binders when they were employed against the two main classes of stone under analysis (marble and granite). Full article
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Article
Nickel Porous Compacts Obtained by Medium-Frequency Electrical Resistance Sintering
Materials 2020, 13(9), 2131; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13092131 - 04 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
A commercially pure (c.p.) nickel powder was consolidated by Medium-Frequency Electrical Resistance Sintering (MF-ERS). In this consolidation technique, a pressure and the heat released by a high-intensity and low-voltage electrical current are concurrently applied to a metal powder mass. A nickel powder with [...] Read more.
A commercially pure (c.p.) nickel powder was consolidated by Medium-Frequency Electrical Resistance Sintering (MF-ERS). In this consolidation technique, a pressure and the heat released by a high-intensity and low-voltage electrical current are concurrently applied to a metal powder mass. A nickel powder with a high tap porosity (86%) and a low applied pressure (only 100 MPa) is chosen in order to be able to obtain compacts with different levels of porosity, to facilitate the study of the porosity influence on the compact properties. The influence of current intensity and heating time on the global porosity values, the porosity and microhardness distribution, and the electrical conductivity of the sintered compacts is studied. The properties of the compacts consolidated by MF-ERS are compared with the results obtained by the conventional powder metallurgy route, consisting of cold pressing and furnace sintering. A universal equation to describe the porosity influence on all the analyzed properties of powder aggregates and sintered compacts is proposed and validated. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title:
Part property Correlations of Geometry and Infilldegree of fused filament fabricated 316L stainless steel parts

Authors:
Tobias Rosnitschek 1,*, Andressa Seefeldt 2, Bettina Alber-Laukant 1, Thomas Neumayer 2 and Stephan Tremmel 1
1  Engineering Design and CAD, University of Bayreuth, Universitaetsstr. 30, 95447 Bayreuth, Germany;
2  Neue Materialien Bayreuth GmbH, Gottlieb-Keim-Str. 60, 95448 Bayreuth, Germany

Abstract:

This Study investigates the effect of part geometry and infill degrees on mechanical properties of fused filament fabricated stainless steel 316L parts produced with BASF's Ultrafuse 316LX filament. The correlations between infill degrees, mechanical properties, and dimensional accuracy are determined to enhance the part performance via tailored porosity and further establish efficient methods for its product development process. To investigate Young's Modulus, Yield strength, and bending stress, standard testing methods for tensile testing according to DIN EN ISO 6892 and bending testing orientated on EN ISO 3325 will be used. For evaluating the dime-sional accuracy, the tensile and bending specimens are compared to a complex-shaped topology-optimized part. These are measured before and after sintering to analyze anisotropic shrink-age effects and dimensional accuracy linked to the infill structure. A more profound understanding of the process and its capabilities enhances the product development process for metal extrusion-based Additive Manufacturing through these investigations.

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