Special Issue "Porous Materials for Environmental Applications"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Porous Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2019).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Antonio Gil Bravo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Applied Chemistry, Public University of Navarra, Building Los Acebos, Campus of Arrosadia, E-31006 Pamplona, Spain
Interests: preparation, characterization and catalytic activity of metal supported nanocatalysts; catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); porous and surface properties of solids; gas adsorption; energy storage; pollutants adsorption; environmental management; waste valorization
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Miguel A. Vicente
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
GIR-QUESCAT, Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37008-Salamanca, Spain
Interests: preparation, characterization and catalytic activity of metal supported nanocatalysts; clay-based materials; surface properties of solids; pollutants adsorption; environmental management
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of porous materials has attracted the attention of the research community for years. Porosity characteristics have specific impacts on material properties, and materials are applied in several areas, such as pollutant removal, CO2 capture, energy storage, catalytic oxidation and reduction processes, conversion of biomass to biofuels, and drug delivery. Examples of porous materials are activated carbons, clays, and zeolites, among others. The aim of this Special Issue is to collect recent advances and progress, developed considering porous materials and their applications in environmental areas.

Prof. Dr. Antonio Gil
Prof. Dr. Miguel A. Vicente
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Activated Carbons
  • Clays
  • Hydrotalcite-Like Compounds
  • Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs)
  • Nanoporous Materials
  • Ordered Mesoporous Materials: Pillared Interlayered Clays (PILCs)
  • Polymers
  • Zeolites and Zeolite-Like Materials
  • Adsorption Applications
  • Air Pollution Control: Catalytic Applications
  • Purification/Separation of Gases and Liquids
  • Removal of Pollutants
  • Sensors
  • Wastewater Treatment

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Biosorption of Methylene Blue Dye Using Natural Biosorbents Made from Weeds
Materials 2019, 12(15), 2486; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12152486 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1206
Abstract
The purpose of this work is to make use of vegetables that, although widely found in nature, there are few applications. The weeds used here, Cyanthilium cinereum (L.) H. Rob (CCLHR) and Paspalum maritimum (PMT) found in the Amazon region of Belém state [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work is to make use of vegetables that, although widely found in nature, there are few applications. The weeds used here, Cyanthilium cinereum (L.) H. Rob (CCLHR) and Paspalum maritimum (PMT) found in the Amazon region of Belém state of Pará-Brazil, contribute to the problem of water contamination by the removal of the methylene blue dye through the biosorption process, taking advantage of other materials for economic viability and processing. The influences of parameters such as, biosorbent dose, contact time, and initial concentration of dye were examined. The characterizations were realized using SEM to verify the morphology of the material and spectroscopy in the FTIR region. As for the adsorption mechanism, the physical adsorption mechanism prevailed. The time required for the system to reach equilibrium for both biosorbents was from 50 min, following a kinetics described by the pseudo-second order model. The adsorption isotherm data for PMT were better adjusted to the Langmuir model and the biosorption capacity ( q m a x ) value was (56.1798 mg/g). CCLHR was better adjusted to the Freundlich model and its maximum biosorption capacity was 76.3359 mg/g. Thus, these weed species are promising for the biosorption of methylene blue dye in effluents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials for Environmental Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of High Pressure on the Reducibility and Dispersion of the Active Phase of Fischer–Tropsch Catalysts
Materials 2019, 12(12), 1915; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12121915 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 967
Abstract
The effect of high pressure on the reducibility and dispersion of oxides of Co and Fe supported on γ-Al2O3, SiO2, and TiO2 has been studied. The catalysts, having a nominal metal content of 10 wt.%, were [...] Read more.
The effect of high pressure on the reducibility and dispersion of oxides of Co and Fe supported on γ-Al2O3, SiO2, and TiO2 has been studied. The catalysts, having a nominal metal content of 10 wt.%, were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of previously calcined supports. After drying at 60 °C for 6 h and calcination at 500 °C for 4 h, the catalysts were reduced by hydrogen at two pressures, 1 and 25 bar. The metal reduction was studied by temperature-programmed reduction up to 750 °C at the two pressures, and the metal dispersion was measured by CO chemisorption at 25 °C, obtaining values between 1% and 8%. The physicochemical characterization of these materials was completed by means of chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption at −196 °C and scanning electron microscopy. The high pressure lowered the reduction temperature of the metal oxides, improving their reducibility and dispersion. The metal reducibility increased from 42%, in the case of Fe/Al2O3 (1 bar), to 100%, in the case of Fe/TiO2 (25 bar). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials for Environmental Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
CO Adsorption Performance of CuCl/Activated Carbon by Simultaneous Reduction–Dispersion of Mixed Cu(II) Salts
Materials 2019, 12(10), 1605; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12101605 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1121
Abstract
CO is a toxic gas discharged as a byproduct in tail gases from different industrial flue gases, which needs to be taken care of urgently. In this study, a CuCl/AC adsorbent was made by a facile route of physically mixing CuCl2 and [...] Read more.
CO is a toxic gas discharged as a byproduct in tail gases from different industrial flue gases, which needs to be taken care of urgently. In this study, a CuCl/AC adsorbent was made by a facile route of physically mixing CuCl2 and Cu(HCOO)2 powder with activated carbon (AC), followed by heating at 533 K under vacuum. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), N2 adsorption/desorption, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was shown that Cu(II) can be completely reduced to Cu(I), and the monolayer dispersion threshold of CuCl on AC support is 4 mmol·g−1 AC. The adsorption isotherms of CO, CO2, CH4, and N2 on CuCl/AC adsorbents were measured by the volumetric method, and the CO/CO2, CO/CH4, and CO/N2 selectivities of the adsorbents were predicted using ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST). The obtained adsorbent displayed a high CO adsorption capacity, high CO/N2, CO/CH4, and CO/CO2 selectivities, excellent ad/desorption cycle performance, rapid adsorption rate, and appropriate isosteric heat of adsorption, which made it a promising adsorbent for CO separation and purification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials for Environmental Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Combined Effect of Pressure and Carbon Dioxide Activation on Porous Structure of Lignite Chars
Materials 2019, 12(8), 1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12081326 - 23 Apr 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 963
Abstract
Lignite is an important natural resource with the application potential covering present and future energy systems, including conventional power plants and gasification systems. Lignite is also a valuable precursor for the production of porous materials of tailored properties for various environmental applications, including [...] Read more.
Lignite is an important natural resource with the application potential covering present and future energy systems, including conventional power plants and gasification systems. Lignite is also a valuable precursor for the production of porous materials of tailored properties for various environmental applications, including the removal of contaminants from gaseous or liquid media. Although the lignite-based activated carbons are commercially available, various approaches to produce carbon materials of desired properties are still being reported, covering temperature, partial oxidation and chemical activation effects on surface and structural properties of these materials. Limited data is, however, available on the effects of pressure as the activation parameter in shaping the porous structure of carbonaceous materials, in particularly lignite-derived. In the study presented the combined effect of carbon dioxide activation and pressure in the range of 1–3 MPa at the temperature of 800 °C on the development of porous structure of lignite chars was reported. The study was also focused on poor-quality resources valorization by using a relatively low calorific value, low volatiles and high ash content lignite as a carbon material precursor. The results showed that the application of pressure in carbon dioxide-activation process at 800 °C results in generation of chars of comparable or higher specific surface area than the carbon materials previously received with demineralization and carbon dioxide activation of lignite. They also proved that the combined pressure and carbon dioxide activation may be effectively applied in conversion of low quality lignite into valuable porous materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials for Environmental Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Study of Catalytic Combustion of Chlorobenzene and Temperature Programmed Reactions over CrCeOx/AlFe Pillared Clay Catalysts
Materials 2019, 12(5), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12050728 - 02 Mar 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1051
Abstract
In this study, both AlFe composite pillaring agents and AlFe pillared clays (AlFe-PILC) were synthesized via a facile process developed by our group, after which mixed Cr and Ce precursors were impregnated on AlFe-PILC. Catalytic combustion of organic pollutant chlorobenzene (CB) on CrCe/AlFe-PILC [...] Read more.
In this study, both AlFe composite pillaring agents and AlFe pillared clays (AlFe-PILC) were synthesized via a facile process developed by our group, after which mixed Cr and Ce precursors were impregnated on AlFe-PILC. Catalytic combustion of organic pollutant chlorobenzene (CB) on CrCe/AlFe-PILC catalysts were systematically studied. AlFe-PILC displayed very high thermal stability and large BET surface area (SBET). After 4 h of calcination at 550 °C, the basal spacing (d001) and SBET of AlFe-PILC was still maintained at 1.91 nm and 318 m2/g, respectively. Large SBET and d001-value, along with the strong interaction between the carrier and active components, improved the adsorption/desorption of CB and O2. When the desorption temperatures of CB and O2 got closer to the CB combustion temperature, the CB conversion could be increased to a higher level. CB combustion on CrCe/AlFe-PILC catalyst was determined using a Langmuir–Hinshelwood mechanism. Adsorption/desorption/oxidation properties were critical to design highly efficient catalysts for CB degradation. Besides, CrCe/AlFe-PILC also displayed good durability for CB combustion, whether in a humid environment or in the presence of volatile organic compound (VOC), making the catalyst an excellent material for eliminating chlorinated VOCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials for Environmental Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Zeolite A/LDH Composite for Simultaneous Cation and Anion Removal
Materials 2019, 12(4), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12040661 - 22 Feb 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1672
Abstract
Wastewater from the oil industry is a major problem for aqueous environments due to its complexity and estimated volume of approximately 250 million barrels per day. The combination of these petroleum pollutants creates risks to human health, and their removal from the environment [...] Read more.
Wastewater from the oil industry is a major problem for aqueous environments due to its complexity and estimated volume of approximately 250 million barrels per day. The combination of these petroleum pollutants creates risks to human health, and their removal from the environment is considered a major problem in the world today. Thus, this work has the objective of studying the treatment of this type of effluent through the adsorption method using the following exchange materials: cationic, anionic, their combination by a sequential method, and a composite material. Zeolite A, a layered double hydroxide (LDH), and the new composite material formed by zeolite A and LDH structures were synthesized for this study. All were used for the simultaneous treatment of cations and anions in a complex sample such as water produced from petroleum production. The composite demonstrated an excellent ability to simultaneously remove cations and anions. The results obtained after the different treatment modes of the effluent using different materials varied from 85% to 100% for the removal of cations and from 56% to 99.7% for the removal of anions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials for Environmental Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Mesoscale Anisotropy in Porous Media Made of Clay Minerals. A Numerical Study Constrained by Experimental Data
Materials 2018, 11(10), 1972; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11101972 - 13 Oct 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1250
Abstract
The anisotropic properties of clay-rich porous media have significant impact on the directional dependence of fluids migration in environmental and engineering sciences. This anisotropy, linked to the preferential orientation of flat anisometric clay minerals particles, is studied here on the basis of the [...] Read more.
The anisotropic properties of clay-rich porous media have significant impact on the directional dependence of fluids migration in environmental and engineering sciences. This anisotropy, linked to the preferential orientation of flat anisometric clay minerals particles, is studied here on the basis of the simulation of three-dimensional packings of non-interacting disks, using a sequential deposition algorithm under a gravitational field. Simulations show that the obtained porosities fall onto a single master curve when plotted against the anisotropy value. This finding is consistent with results from sedimentation experiments using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) disks and subsequent extraction of particle anisotropy through X-ray microtomography. Further geometrical analyses of computed porous media highlight that both particle orientation and particle aggregation are responsible of the evolution of porosity as a function of anisotropy. Moreover, morphological analysis of the porous media using chord length measurements shows that the anisotropy of the pore and solid networks can be correlated with particle orientation. These results indicate that computed porous media, mimicking the organization of clay minerals, can be used to shed light on the anisotropic properties of fluid transfer in clay-based materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials for Environmental Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
One-Step Hydrothermal Synthesis of Zeolite X Powder from Natural Low-Grade Diatomite
Materials 2018, 11(6), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060906 - 28 May 2018
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1938
Abstract
Zeolite X powder was synthesized using natural low-grade diatomite as the main source of Si but only as a partial source of Al via a simple and green hydrothermal method. The microstructure and surface properties of the obtained samples were characterized by powder [...] Read more.
Zeolite X powder was synthesized using natural low-grade diatomite as the main source of Si but only as a partial source of Al via a simple and green hydrothermal method. The microstructure and surface properties of the obtained samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF), calcium ion exchange capacity (CEC), thermogravimetric-differential thermal (TG-DTA) analysis, and N2 adsorption-desorption technique. The influence of various synthesis factors, including aging time and temperature, crystallization time and temperature, Na2O/SiO2 and H2O/Na2O ratio on the CEC of zeolite, were systematically investigated. The as-synthesized zeolite X with binary meso-microporous structure possessed remarkable thermal stability, high calcium ion exchange capacity of 248 mg/g and large surface area of 453 m2/g. In addition, the calcium ion exchange capacity of zeolite X was found to be mainly determined by the crystallization degree. In conclusion, the synthesized zeolite X using diatomite as a cost-effective raw material in this study has great potential for industrial application such as catalyst support and adsorbent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials for Environmental Applications)
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Open AccessCommunication
Spherical Activated Carbons with High Mechanical Strength Directly Prepared from Selected Spherical Seeds
Materials 2018, 11(5), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050770 - 10 May 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1727
Abstract
In the present manuscript, the preparation of spherical activated carbons (SACs) with suitable adsorption properties and high mechanical strength is reported, taking advantage of the retention of the spherical shape by the raw precursors. An easy procedure (carbonization followed by CO2 activation) [...] Read more.
In the present manuscript, the preparation of spherical activated carbons (SACs) with suitable adsorption properties and high mechanical strength is reported, taking advantage of the retention of the spherical shape by the raw precursors. An easy procedure (carbonization followed by CO2 activation) has been applied over a selection of three natural seeds, with a well-defined spherical shape and thermal stability: Rhamnus alaternus (RA), Osyris lanceolate (OL), and Canna indica (CI). After the carbonization-activation procedures, RA and CI, maintained their original spherical shapes and integrity, although a reduction in diameter around 48% and 25%, respectively, was observed. The porosity of the resulting SACs could be tuned as function of the activation temperature and time, leading to a spherical activated carbon with surface area up to 1600 m2/g and mechanical strength similar to those of commercial activated carbons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials for Environmental Applications)
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